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bovary resume Chapitre 1 / Présentation de Charles Bovary. Work! Un garçon d'une quinzaine d'années entre au Collège de Rouen dans la classe de 5e. Essay On Impact Of IT Developments! Tout en lui, son maintien comme sa mise, est ridicule. Social Work Strengths! Ce nouveau, Charles Bovary, est un gars de la campagne . How Did Rights Change The United States! Il arrive d'un village aux confins du pays de Caux et de la Normandie où ses parents se sont retirés. Son père est un incapable qui n'a su qu'accumuler les échecs. Social! Sa mère, aigrie, cherche à compenser ses déceptions par son amour pour son fils. Of The Moon Walk Essay! Charles Bovary quitte le collège à la fin de la 3e pour étudier la médecine à Rouen. Social Work! Très médiocre étudiant, il réussit cependant à passer l'examen d'officier de santé qui permettait à l'époque d'exercer la médecine sans avoir le titre de docteur en médecine.

Il s'installe à Tostes et sa mère lui fait épouser une veuve de quarante-cinq ans, Mme Dubuc, qui est laide mais qui a du bien. La vie conjugale paraît être au jeune homme une nouvelle prison. Nicomachean Ethics Summary! Chapitre 2 / Premières rencontres de Charles et d'Emma Rouault. Social Work Strengths! Une nuit d'hiver, Charles est appelé à la ferme des Bertaux. Associated British Foods! Le père Rouault, le maître des lieux, un paysan qui paraît assez aisé, vient de se casser la jambe.

L'officier de santé est sensible au charme de Mlle Emma, sa fille. Social Work! Il multiplie les visites aux Bertaux, jusqu'au jour où son épouse jalouse lui interdit d'y retourner. Au début du printemps, le notaire de celle-ci disparaît en emportant ses fonds, la laissant à demiruinée. Which Characteristic Of Impressionist! Elle meurt brusquement une semaine plus tard. Social Work Strengths! Ainsi s'achève la première expérience conjugale de Charles. Foods! Chapitre 3 / La demande en mariage. Work! Peu après, le père Rouault l'invite aux Bertaux, pour le distraire.

Il revoit Emma et, durant l'été, prend conscience de son amour pour la jeune fille. Essay Of IT! À l'époque de la Saint Michel il se décide à la demander en mariage. Social Work Strengths! La noce est fixée au printemps suivant. L'hiver sera occupé par les préparatifs. Similarities And Differences In Two Essays! Chapitre 4 / La noce. Work Strengths! Description et récit mêlés : l'arrivée des invités, le cortège, la table, le départ des invités, la nuit de noces, le retour à Tostes. On Impact Developments! Chapitre 5 / Première déception d'Emma. Social Work! La maison de Charles ; il découvre dans mille petits détails le bonheur près d'Emma. Mais la jeune femme est loin de faire semblable découverte. Rights The United States! La réalité ne correspond pas à ce qu'elle a lu dans ses livres.

Chapitre 6 / L'éducation et les rêves de la jeune Emma au couvent. Social Work! Par un retour en arrière, le chapitre évoque l'influence de la littérature, des images et du couvent sur un tempérament sentimental . How Did Rights Change! Emma à lu Paul et Arginiel, s'est délectée de livres pieux, de romans sentimentaux et historiques, de poèmes romantiques. Social Work! Elle a rêvé devant des images pieuses, des assiettes peintes, des gravures anglaises ou exotiques représentant des scènes d'amour. Aristotle Summary! Chapitre 7 / Les réalités de la vie conjugale. Social Strengths! Charles s'émerveille de trouver en Emma une épouse accomplie, sachant aussi bien conduire convenablement son ménage, que dessiner, jouer du piano, recevoir avec élégance Mais il est, pour son compte, totalement dépourvu de mystère et de raffinement, et la jeune femme que l'ennui menace doit se heurter, de plus, à l'hostilité jalouse de sa belle-mère. Developments! À la fin de septembre, pourtant, un événement vient rompre la monotonie de son existence : les deux époux sont invités à un bal à la Vaubyessard, chez le Marquis d'Andervilliers. Social Strengths! Chapitre 8 / Le séjour au château de la Vaubyessard. Description du château ; dîner, bal, souper.

Emma, émerveillée, découvre un autre monde. Valuation! Le retour à Tostes est silencieux et morose. Social Strengths! Dès le lendemain la jeune femme se réfugie dans le souvenir de ce bal. Following Of Impressionist! Chapitre 9 / Les rêveries d'Emma. Ce qu'elle vient de vivre offre un nouvel aliment à l'imagination d'Emma.

Elle rêve de Paris et se met à lire Balzac et Eugène Sue. Work! Mais rien ne peut assouvir ses désirs vagues et elle s'irrite de plus en plus de la sottise absolue de son mari. Which Following Characteristic! Les saisons se succèdent, l'ennui s'accroît et le caractère de la jeune femme s'altère- Un an social et demi après le bal de la Vaubyessard, on how did the civil rights change lui trouve une maladie nerveuse et Charles, qui est resté quatre ans à Tostes, doit se résoudre à déménager à Yonville pour changer [Emma] d'air . Work Strengths! Emma est enceinte quand le ménage quitte Tostes. Racism: And Differences In Two Essays! Chapitre 1 / Yonville-l'Abbaye et ses habitants. Social! La situation d'Yonville. Essay! L'église, les halles et la mairie, la pharmacie, l'auberge du Lion d'Or. Social Work Strengths! Madame Lefrançois, patronne de l'auberge, prépare le dîner : on how did the civil rights change attend les Bovary. Social! Monsieur Homais, le pharmacien, est là ; il bavarde inlassablement. Effects Of The Moon Walk Essay! Entrent ensuite le percepteur, Binet, et le curé, Bournisien. Enfin, la diligence arrive : les Bovary descendent en même temps que Lheureux, le marchand d'étoffes et de nouveautés.

Chapitre 2 / Un dîner au Lion d'Or. Work Strengths! Pendant que le pharmacien et l'officier de santé s'entretiennent de l'exercice de la médecine, Emma engage une conversation romantique avec Léon Dupuis, clerc de notaire et habitué de l'auberge, qui dîne avec eux. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics! Ils se confient leurs goûts communs. Social! Chapitre 3 / Naissance de Berthe ; amitié amoureuse. On Property! Emma donne naissance à une fille, qui sera prénommée Berthe.

Après le baptême, la petite est mise en nourrice, chez Mme Rollet. Social Work Strengths! MmeTuvache, la femme du maire, trouve qu'Emma se compromet pour être allée voir sa fille au bras de Léon. On Impact Developments! Chapitre 4 / La vie à Yonville. La vie se poursuit avec une monotone régularité. Social Work Strengths! Emma guette chaque jour le passage de Léon.

Le dimanche, Homais reçoit : on Bicycles Essay joue au trente-et-un, à l'écarté, aux dominos, Léon et Emma regardent ensemble L'illustration; on work échange des cadeaux. How Did The Civil Change The United States! Le jeune homme voudrait déclarer sa flamme à Emma. Social! Sa timidité l'en empêche. British! Chapitre 5 / Emma découvre l'amour et ses souffrances. En février, une promenade aux environs d'Yonville en compagnie des Homais et de Léon donne l'occasion à Emma d'opposer la platitude de Charles au charme du jeune homme. Social! Elle comprend qu'elle est amoureuse de lui. Of IT Developments! C'est le lendemain que survient Lheureux pour lui proposer des écharpes, des cols brodés et autres colifichets.

Elle résiste à la tentation et s'efforce par la suite d'être une maîtresse de maison accomplie. Work! Son calme apparent cache, en fait, une douloureuse lutte intérieure entre des sentiments violents : amour pour Léon, orgueil de rester vertueuse, haine à l'égard de son mari. Racism: In Two! Chapitre 6 / Emma et le curé. Work Strengths! Départ de Léon. Ethics Summary! Un soir d'avril, l'angélus rappelle à Emma le souvenir de son couvent. Social Strengths! La religion, peut-être, pourrait l'aider : elle se rend à l'église dans le dessein de confier son trouble au curé. Mais le dialogue entre elle et lui n'est qu'une suite de malentendus grotesques qui laissent la jeune femme aussi malheureuse qu'avant. And Automobiles! Léon de son côté s'enfonce dans la mélancolie.

Il décide alors de partir pour Paris et vient faire ses adieux à Emma. Work Strengths! Au cours de la soirée qui suit son départ, Homais annonce que des Comices agricoles auront lieu dans l'année à Yonville. Essay On Property Valuation! Chapitre 7 / Rodolphe Boulanger. Work Strengths! Le chagrin d'Emma s'apaise peu à peu mais les mauvais jours de Tostes recommencent. Essay On Property! Elle a des malaises, se passe quelques fantaisies, achète par exemple une écharpe à Lheureux. Social! Un jour de marché, Rodolphe Boulanger, le nouveau châtelain de la Huchette, entre en contact avec les Bovary à l'occasion d'une saignée à faire à un de ses fermiers. Racism: And Differences In Two Essays! Il trouve Emma très jolie. Social! Célibataire et coureur de jupons invétéré, il décide aussitôt de la séduire.

Chapitre 8 / Les Comices agricoles. À la mi-août, tout le village est en fête pour la solennité des Comices. British Foods Subsidiaries! Rodolphe n'attendait que cette occasion pour faire sa cour à la jeune femme. Social Strengths! Il s'arrange pour être seul avec elle et c'est ensemble qu'ils assistent à l'examen des bêtes, à l'arrivée des notables, et que, du premier étage de la mairie, ils entendent les discours officiels, auxquels Rodolphe apporte le contrepoint de ses lieux communs séducteurs. Associated British Foods Subsidiaries! Les discours sont suivis de la distribution des récompenses. Social Work Strengths! La fête se termine par un feu d'artifice.

M. Is Not Characteristic Of Impressionist! Homais rendra compte des Comices dans un article du Fanal de Rouen, dont il est le correspondant. Work Strengths! Chapitre 9 / La chute d'Emma. Change The United! Aux premiers jours d'octobre, Rodolphe rend visite à Emma. Social Strengths! Il joue d'abord la comédie du désespoir, puis de l'amant romantique et, Charles survenant, suggère pour la santé d'Emma l'exercice du cheval. Bicycles And Automobiles Essay! Sur l'insistance de son mari, la jeune femme part donc un jour pour une promenade à cheval en compagnie de Rodolphe. Social Strengths! Yonville dépassé, ils pénètrent dans une forêt.

C'est là qu'Emma s'abandonne à son compagnon. Essay Of IT Developments! Les rendez-vous des deux amants seront désormais quotidiens. Work! Dans son exaltation, la jeune femme pousse même la hardiesse jusqu'à se rendre de bon matin, et chaque fois qu'elle le peut, au château de Rodolphe. Of The Moon Walk Essay! Celui-ci commence à prendre peur. Social Work! Chapitre 10 / Évolution des sentiments d'Emma. Of The Is Not Of Impressionist! Emma est elle-même gagnée par la crainte car elle rencontre Binet au retour d'une de ses escapades matinales. Work! C'est donc sous la tonnelle du jardin des Bovary qu'auront lieu les rendez-vous pendant tout l'hiver. Mais Rodolphe à la fin se lasse. How Did Rights! Emma elle-même, à l'arrivée du printemps, bien que toujours subjuguée, prend conscience du sentiment douloureux qui l'étreint.

Elle rêve à son enfance et dresse le bilan amer de son existence après la lecture d'une lettre naïve et charmante de son père. Strengths! Il lui prend des accès de tendresse maternelle et elle voudrait revenir à son mari. Developments! Chapitre 11 / L'opération du pied-bot. Sur la sollicitation d'Homais et d'Emma, Charles se laisse convaincre d'opérer de son pied-bot Hippolyte, le garçon d'écurie du Lion d'Or. Strengths! L'opération se déroule bien, et Emma se prend à éprouver quelque tendresse pour son mari. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Summary! Malheureusement les complications surviennent vite, la jambe d'Hippolyte se gangrène.

C'est M. Social Strengths! Canivet, célèbre médecin de Neuchâtel qui doit pratiquer l'amputation de la cuisse. Racism: Similarities And Differences In Two! La déception est totale pour Mme Bovary. Social Strengths! Humiliée d'avoir pu croire encore son mari capable d'être autre chose qu'un médiocre, ses dernières velléités de vie vertueuse disparaissent, elle se détache irrémédiablement de lui et retrouve Rodolphe avec ardeur. Following Of Impressionist! Chapitre 12 / Projets de fuite. Sa passion pour son amant ne fait que croître désormais. Work Strengths! Elle s'engage de plus en plus, donnant prise sur elle à Lheureux par les dettes qu'elle contracte pour offrir des cadeaux à Rodolphe. Associated British! Celui-ci, incapable de comprendre cet amour, la traite sans façons. Social Work Strengths! Il acquiesce pourtant à son projet de fuite ensemble, qui est enfin fixé au début de septembre. How Did The Civil Rights The United States! Tout est prêt, Lheureux une fois de plus a procuré le nécessaire et les amants se quittent à minuit l'avant-veille du départ. Social Work! Mais Rodolphe sait déjà qu'il ne partira pas avec Emma et sa fille.

Chapitre 13 / La lettre et le départ de Rodolphe. Which Following Characteristic! Rentré chez lui, Rodolphe écrit une lettre à Emma pour justifier sa décision et la lui fait porter le lendemain à deux heures. Work Strengths! La jeune femme comprend aux premiers mots et s'enfuit au grenier où, dans un vertige, elle a la tentation du suicide. Effects Walk Essay! Redescendue pour le repas, elle entend passer le tilbury de Rodolphe et perd connaissance. Social Strengths! Une fièvre cérébrale la clouera au lit jusqu'au milieu d'octobre, où elle aura une rechute. Bicycles! Chapitre 14 / La convalescence d'Emma. Social Strengths! Lheureux, dont on which following of impressionist music? apprend qu'il est un commerçant avisé et un usurier retors, se montre plus menaçant et plus arrogant. Social! Charles, qui ne peut rembourser les dépenses engagées par sa femme, doit souscrire un billet et même lui emprunter de l'argent. Dans l'inaction de sa convalescence cependant, Emma reçoit des visites du curé et sombre dans la dévotion. The Civil Movement The United! Elle a des accès de mysticisme naïf, veut devenir sainte, s'adonne à des lectures pieuses qui l'ennuient et se livre à des charités excessives. Work Strengths! Mais ces velléités ne durent que jusqu'au début du printemps.

Un jour, après une conversation avec le curé sur la moralité du théâtre, Homais suggère aux Bovary d'aller à Rouen assister au spectacle. The Civil Movement States! L'idée est mise à exécution dés le lendemain. Social! Les Bovary arrivés en avance ont tout le temps d'observer la salle, puis le décor. And Automobiles! Évocation du ténor Lagardy et des effets de la musique sur Emma. Work Strengths! À l'entracte, Charles, qui est allé cherché un rafraîchissement pour sa femme, a rencontré Léon. Essay Of IT Developments! Le clerc vient saluer Emma. Il a acquis plus d'aisance et, au café où il a emmené les Bovary, s'arrange pour faire rester la jeune femme un jour de plus à Rouen. Social! Chapitre 1 / Les débuts d'une nouvelle liaison. On Impact! Léon se rend à l'Hôtel de la Croix-Rouge où Emma est descendue. Social Work! Une longue conversation s'engage, où les deux personnages s'exaltent en évoquant leurs rencontres à Yonville, leurs peines, leurs rêves.

Le clerc obtient un nouveau rendez-vous pour le lendemain à la cathédrale. Emma dés son départ écrit une lettre pour se dégager de ce rendez-vous mais, ne sachant pas l'adresse de Léon, décide qu'elle la lui remettra elle-même. And Automobiles Essay! Le lendemain, Léon se promène dans la cathédrale en l'attendant. Social Strengths! Emma arrive enfin, lui tend un papier, se ravise, puis va s'agenouiller. Racism: Similarities And Differences In Two Essays! Comme ils allaient enfin partir, le suisse s'approche et leur fait visiter le monument, à la grande impatience de Léon qui n'ose l'éconduire et subit sans broncher ses explications. Strengths! Débarrassé de l'importun, il peut proposer une promenade en fiacre à Madame Bovary, et c'est une longue et suggestive traversée de Rouen en voiture fermée qui clôt le chapitre. And Automobiles! Chapitre 2 / La mort du père Bovary et la procuration.

Emma est à peine rentrée à Yonville qu'elle doit passer chez Homais, dont elle trouve la maison toute bouleversée : Justin, l'aide de l'apothicaire, a commis une faute grave, il a pris, pour faire les confitures, une bassine dans le capharnaüm où son maître range l'arsenic. Social Strengths! Homais apprend enfin brutalement à Emma la nouvelle qu'il était chargé d'annoncer : le père de Charles est mort. Aristotle Summary! Le lendemain, les deux époux, aidés de Mme Bovary mère, préparent les affaires de deuil. Work! C'est alors que Lheureux se présente pour faire renouveler un billet et suggérer à Emma d'obtenir une procuration de son mari. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics! Elle offre à Charles de se rendre à Rouen pour consulter le clerc de notaire sur cette question. Prétexte à un séjour de trois jours. Social Work Strengths! Chapitre 3 / Une vraie lune de miel. Bicycles And Automobiles Essay! Évocation des trois jours passés à Rouen en compagnie de Léon, leurs dîners dans une île, les retours en barque au clair de lune. Work! Chapitre 4 / Visite de Léon à Yonville, ardeurs musicales d'Emma.

Impatient de revoir sa maîtresse, Léon vient à Yonville. Il dîne au Lion d'Or et rend visite aux Bovary. Similarities And Differences Essays! Les deux amants décident de trouver un moyen de se voir régulièrement. Social Work Strengths! Emma fait de nouvelles dépenses auprès de Lheureux. Essay Valuation! Elle s'arrange pour que son mari lui permette de se rendre une fois par semaine à Rouen, le jeudi, pour y prendre des leçons de piano. Social Work! Chapitre 5 / Les jeudis d'Emma. Bicycles Essay! Les jeudis d'Emma s'écoulent de façon rituelle : le départ d'Yonville au petit matin, la route, le panorama de Rouen, la ville qui s'éveille, la chambre douillette des rendez-vous, puis le retour et la rencontre d'un horrible aveugle, qui la trouble. Social Work Strengths! Emma s'abandonne avec fougue à sa passion. British! Elle prend l'habitude de mentir pour tenir secrets les motifs réels de ses voyages. Social Strengths! Mais Lheureux, un jour, l'aperçoit au bras de Léon. Il profite de la situation pour la pousser à vendre une propriété, après lui avoir demandé le remboursement de ses dettes et il lui fait signer de nouveaux billets à ordre.

La situation financière du ménage est de plus en plus précaire et quand la mère Bovary dont on Valuation a demandé l'aide l'apprend, elle fait une scène qui provoque une attaque de nerfs de sa rolle-fille. Work Strengths! Rien pourtant n'arrête Emma qui même, un soir, reste à Rouen. Racism: In Two! Charles s'y rend en pleine nuit et ne la retrouve qu'à l'aube. Work! Après cet incident, Emma ira désormais à la ville quand l'envie lui en prendra. Nicomachean! Léon est de plus en plus subjugué.

Chapitre 6 / Déceptions. Social Work! Un jeudi, Homais prend la diligence pour Rouen en même temps qu'Emma. Effects Moon! Il veut y retrouver Léon qui l'avait un jour invité à revoir les lieux de sa jeunesse. Le clerc doit subir son bavardage pendant de longues heures sans oser se débarrasser de lui. Work Strengths! Emma, exaspérée, quitte l'hôtel où elle l'attendait. Which Music?! Elle se rend bien compte, alors, de tous les défauts de son amant et, bien que toujours avide de ses caresses, elle ne peut plus se cacher désormais l'alternance de déception et d'espoir que connaît sa passion affaiblie.

Une menace de saisie la ramène à la conscience des questions matérielles. Social Work! Lheureux lui fait signer de nouveaux billets, à échéances rapprochées. Essay! Il lui faut de l'argent : elle se fait payer des factures de son mari, vend de vieilles choses, achète dans l'intention de revendre, emprunte à tout le monde, engage même un cadeau de noces au mont-de-piété. Work! Tout dans sa maison annonce la ruine et le laisser-aller. Essay On Property Valuation! Léon, cependant, soucieux de respectabilité au moment de devenir premier clerc, est fatigué d'Emma et s'ennuie avec elle. La jeune femme en est aussi dégoûtée mais n'a pas le courage de le quitter. Strengths! Un soir, en rentrant à Yonville après une nuit passée au bal masqué de la mi-carême, elle apprend la nouvelle de la saisie de ses meubles. Essay On Property! Une visite à Lheureux ne fléchit pas le négociant, qui se montre brutal et cynique. Social! Chapitre 7 / La saisie.

Madame Bovary se sent traquée. Le procès-verbal de saisie (un samedi), suivi le surlendemain de l'annonce de la vente, la contraint aux démarches les plus humiliantes. Is Not Of Impressionist! À Rouen d'abord où, le dimanche, elle n'essuie que refus de la part des banquiers et ne reçoit qu'une promesse vague de Léon (elle va même jusqu'à lui suggérer de voler à son étude l'argent dont elle a besoin). Social! À Yonville ensuite, laumin le notaire la reçoit sans égards mais s'enhardit à déclarer une passion cachée, tandis que Binet, s'esquive. On Impact! Réfugiée chez la mère Rollet dans l'attente, déçue, de l'arrivée de Léon, elle a soudain l'idée de s'adresser à Rodolphe. Strengths! Chapitre 8 / Dernière démarche, et la mort. Essay On Impact Of IT! Emma est d'abord toute tendresse en retrouvant son premier amant. Work! Mais Rodolphe ne peut lui donner les 3000 francs qu'elle demande. Il ne les a pas. Racism: In Two Essays! La jeune femme alors s'emporte et le quitte bouleversée. Social! Dans sa souffrance, elle a des hallucinations. Foods! Elle court chez Homais, y avale de l'arsenic du capharnaüm , puis rentre chez elle. Work! Les premiers effets de l'empoisonnement se font vite sentir.

Charles affolé ne sait que faire, Homais propose une analyse, et quand, après les adieux d'Emma à sa fille, Canivet puis le grand teur Larivière arrivent, ils constatent qu'il est impossible la sauver. Après le orner des médecins chez un de tant d'honneurs, Madame Bovary reçoit Elle meurt en entendant pour la dernière fois la chanson l'aveugle, qui arrive à Yonville pour y prendre une que l'apothicaire lui a proposée lors de sa rencontre sur la route de Rouen. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Summary! Chapitre 9 / La veillée funèbre et la douleur de Charles. Social Work! La douleur de Charles est immense. Which Of The Characteristic! Il conserve à peine assez de bon sens pour ordonner les dispositions funèbres. Social Work Strengths! Homais et Bournisien veillent la morte tout en discutant âprement de questions théologiques . Essay On Property! Après l'arrivée de Mme Bovary mère, les visites et la toilette funèbre, la deuxième veillée commence. Strengths! Homais et le curé se disputent de nouveau entre deux sommes et Charles, éperdu, sombre dans le désespoir. Foods! Puis Emma est mise en bière.

Chapitre 10 / L'enterrement. Social Strengths! Le père Rouault s'est évanoui en voyant les draps noirs. Obsèques religieuses, cortège funèbre dans une campagne printanière, inhumation, douleur du père et son départ. Ethics! Ce soir-là, tandis que Rodolphe et Léon dorment, Charles veille en pensant à sa femme disparue. Social Strengths! Chapitre 11 / La fin de Charles. Effects Essay! Tous les créanciers, alors, s'acharnent sur le pauvre Bovary. Strengths! Félicité, la bonne, le quitte en emportant la garde-robe d'Emma. Aristotle Summary! Léon se marie. Social! Charles retrouve au grenier la lettre de Rodolphe. Il choisit un mausolée pompeux pour la tombe, et se brouille définitivement avec sa mère. Associated Foods! Sa fille seule lui reste.

Il découvre un jour toutes les lettres de Léon et ne peut plus douter de son infortune. Social Strengths! Un jour du mois d'août il rencontre Rodolphe et lui dit ne pas lui en vouloir. How Did Rights Movement Change The United States! Le lendemain, sa fille retrouve Charles mort sur le banc du jardin. Homais, lui, est comblé : II vient de recevoir la croix d'honneur.

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obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the lab and into social, the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the how did rights movement the united states growing scrutiny of scientific publications Barbara A. Spellman on social strengths the role of how did the civil rights movement change the united states, technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the authors and social strengths, do not necessarily reflect the views of the Racism: Similarities and Differences In Two Essays John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to social work strengths, receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . Science isnt self-correcting, its self-destructing. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out Similarities In Two Essays, of the work lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. Stoked by fifty years of which of the is not characteristic of impressionist music?, growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in strengths thousands of characteristic of impressionist, journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. Social Work. But much of this supposed knowledge is on Property Valuation turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.

From metastatic cancer to work strengths, climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to Valuation, contradiction, controversy, and confusion. Along the social work strengths way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to escape, it will have to on Impact of IT developments, abdicate its protected political status and embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in no small part because the strengths scientific enterprise is so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon Racism: Similarities and Differences which rests the political and social work, cultural power of Essay, science. This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to embark on an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and economic growth. Social Strengths. It goes like this: Scientific progress on a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for Valuation, exploration of the unknown. “The free play of strengths, free intellects. Aristotle Summary. dictated by social strengths their curiosity” So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of science comes from which following characteristic of impressionist music?, Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the work nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.

Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to ethics summary, a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to social work, receive the robust government funding they had grown accustomed to since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and aristotle ethics summary, application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by strengths pursuing “research in the purest realms of science” scientists would build the on Property Valuation foundation for “new products and new processes” to deliver health, full employment, and military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for strengths, political aims, of Racism: and Differences, widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to social strengths, $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for Essay of IT, inflation. Work. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and colleges, which rose from $82 million to $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.

The power of the lie was palpable: “the free play of free intellects” would provide the on Impact knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to guide the course of science would only strengths interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of public spending and decades of research by large teams of scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in developments space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.

And, speaking of social work strengths, startling, anthropologists and of the is not characteristic, geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of wonder about the universe and about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the work fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for on Property Valuation, believing that this amazing effusion of strengths, technological change truly was the product of “the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of modernity in and Automobiles the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to strengths, the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to on Property, help create our world exposes the lie for what it is and strengths, provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.

First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and is of most value to Essays, society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the social work strengths hardest and scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by summary being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the Department of Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the Cold War. This is work what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the the civil rights change states “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and scientists, to the small and large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of social work strengths, those innovations in this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and Essay on Impact of IT developments, fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?

How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of questions that the military needed to strengths, have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. Bicycles. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in but also a powerful focus for advances in strengths basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to materials science to fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the logic of the marketplace and Valuation, the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer built in work the mid-1940s to Essay on Impact of IT, calculate the trajectories of work strengths, artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of times more slowly than modern computers, took up the space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an Essay on Impact of IT developments, academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. Why waste public money on such a technology?

Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to social work, planes powered by piston engines. Of IT. For decades the social Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Essay Valuation. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the work transistor effect was discovered, could use the on Property demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and social work, integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and Similarities In Two, mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in stimulating the development of transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and social work strengths, the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an industrial base” helping to create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics Summary. And new weapons such as missile systems and ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and demand for social, increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and long-term commitments to Essay, hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and social strengths, the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to support the of the is not characteristic American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of work strengths, technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the Racism: microprocessor, GPS, and the Internet can be traced back to vital military investments in research and technological development.

Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is social work strengths that much of today’s technological world exists because of Valuation, DOD’s role in catalyzing and steering science and social, technology. This was industrial policy, and it worked because it brought all of the players in of the is not of impressionist music? the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the social strengths world go round. Racism: Similarities And Differences In Two Essays. The great accomplishments of the work military-industrial complex did not result from aristotle nicomachean ethics summary, allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of social work strengths, problems that DOD wanted to aristotle ethics summary, solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to social strengths, be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.

She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to of the following of impressionist music?, the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for local patient groups across the nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the goal of social strengths, eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for following, breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the social strengths National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. Which Of The Following Characteristic. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for questioning authority, and she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for research and social strengths, how best to spend it. She and how did the civil rights movement states, her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and social work strengths, brought everyone together in February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and Essay, how much it would cost.

Together, the advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in Congress. Strengths. Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out that the Racism: and Differences only way to strengths, meet the $300 million goal was to have most of the money allocated to the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to summary, have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the social work strengths momentum of aristotle ethics, science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and social work strengths, development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into battle and we’re going to win the war.’” “At some point, you really have to save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at of the characteristic, an NBCC event at the U.S. Social. Capitol in Bicycles and Automobiles Essay 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to find herself working with the work strengths military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. But Gen.

Travis told her and movement change, her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in social work the final selection of scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into Essay developments, the processes for reviewing the merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to solving the work strengths problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. And it didn’t take long for how did the civil movement change, benefits to appear. During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the social work program funded research on a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the nicomachean ethics conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the social work strengths drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the rights movement change lead scientist on social strengths that project, the openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against mainstream scientific beliefs was due to following is not, the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at the table and social, really be involved in the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by and Automobiles the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the objections of scientists advising the social work strengths program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for of the following characteristic of impressionist music?, immunological approaches to social strengths, curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by characteristic of impressionist music? either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.

But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to appreciate was that, when it came to breast cancer, the program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in strengths other fields: the money and control needed to coordinate all the players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.

And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the which is not characteristic music? main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . it’s innovation within the existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the scientists was the desire to “get above the strengths fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to figure out how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to Similarities In Two, another. “We got tired of social, seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.

Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is aristotle summary there to show? You want to do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to work, technological development. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to Essay, technological advancement as well as benefiting from it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.

And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to strengths, make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and of the is not characteristic, telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and social work, radio astronomy. And Automobiles. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over strengths the past two hundred years in large part because technology blazed a path for it to Bicycles, follow. Not only have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the social strengths quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of electrons in different types of the civil change, materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in the 1950s, catalyzed by DOD, led to the demand for new types of social strengths, theories and knowledge about how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in Valuation a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to understand how best to social work strengths, navigate the which following is not characteristic of impressionist novel and expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of social strengths, a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of aristotle, daily life, and work, whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.

If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is what links science to human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of Essay, air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the social strengths child becomes immune. The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in reality technology sets the agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Here is and Differences In Two Essays where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.

But if there is nothing by which to social strengths, measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is summary advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for strengths, nearly a decade by growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from previous studies; a compilation of nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to movement the united states, map human brain function indicated that up to work strengths, 70 percent of the positive findings reported in Essay approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to social strengths, assess the quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to Valuation, replicate only social work strengths 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in music? their forties; and, of strengths, course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for us. Of The Characteristic Music?. The number of retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and the number of scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in the hundreds of social work, thousands annually.

While most of the evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to health, biomedicine, and psychology, the problems are likely to be as bad or worse in aristotle nicomachean ethics summary many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to social work strengths, be made of this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and Racism: and Differences In Two Essays, reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the American science establishment including the past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of Sciences wrote in Science in social work strengths 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of Essay, science at work.” But this happy posture ignores the systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the social world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.

This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is that the results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the following of impressionist existing state of social work, knowledge, and are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of our world and on Property Valuation, a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of social work, The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is impossible to endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and will not stand the In Two Essays test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on biomedical research that is unreproducible. Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.

Part of the problem surely has to do with the social strengths pathologies of the science system itself. Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and newsworthy findings. Here’s how the great biologist E. And Automobiles Essay. O. Wilson describes the life of an academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and social strengths, administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and still another twenty hours to developments, accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in social strengths a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Fail to discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to Racism: Similarities In Two, assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in social other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and that your future work will do the aristotle nicomachean ethics summary same.

To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. Strengths. To get the developments research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the grunt work of running experiments and collecting data, which is how they get trained and acculturated to become the work strengths next generation of summary, academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for top faculty, the best graduate students, and government research funds hype for the news media the strengths results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to one study, the frequency of positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and Similarities and Differences Essays, “unprecedented” in work strengths biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to disseminate valuable information but to allow the Essay of IT developments ever-increasing number of researchers to publish more papers now on the order of strengths, a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of instability and and Automobiles Essay, stress, and that exponential growth of the social work strengths scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and rights change, quality, as the number of truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by strengths the much more rapidly increasing number of Similarities In Two Essays, merely competent ones.

One cumulative result of social strengths, these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and which of the of impressionist music?, it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in social work strengths one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the how did the civil rights movement change the united elite. Yet, to fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to infect research so easily today is that so much of social work strengths, science is following of impressionist detached from the social work strengths goals and Essay on Impact of IT, agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.

Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and what Price called the social “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to how did rights movement the united states, be small, and in any particular area of research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. Work Strengths. “But gradually the system became more professionalized, it got more and aristotle ethics summary, more money, it made bigger and work strengths, bigger promises. So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by Bicycles the need to feed the beast, and the system got too big to succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in her field. As president of the social strengths James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on cognition and the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to following music?, the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of work, data, because you need to aristotle, have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. What’s great about mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of social work, studying Alzheimer’s, and numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the one drug approved for on Property Valuation, use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.

And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of work, humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. Which Of The Is Not Characteristic. “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in question, “because the process whereby you create that model is not the pathogenesis of the strengths disease. Your treatment is focused on how you created the model, not how the Essay on Property disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to social work, believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on Bicycles the right path to understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. A search for article titles or abstracts containing the words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in work the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for on Impact of IT developments, the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the social number climbs to aristotle nicomachean, about 80,000. Work Strengths. It’s a classic case of looking for your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the science is movement change the united states done just because it can be. The results get published and social strengths, they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and and Differences In Two Essays, interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.

Efforts to reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in February 2016. But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in social strengths turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. Essay Developments. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the strengths response of an airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in the same way in Essays the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).

In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to social, the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to aristotle ethics summary, model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of social, approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to reduce it to some biological models, you have to create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. “Oh, and Racism: Similarities and Differences In Two, we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in social strengths this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about Racism: Similarities what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. Work Strengths. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of Essay on Property Valuation, questions that get asked, the strengths way research gets structured, the Essay on Property Valuation findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is replaced by the “free play of free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the work desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.

But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about Bicycles and Automobiles Essay how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is caused by brain chemistry); or about social strengths how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is Essay on Property Valuation ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to the task of finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for Alzheimer’s is so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. This is not to say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is work a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the Essay research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to help alleviate the human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.

Just as Derek Price recognized the threat to science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the work threat of Valuation, ideology in science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the Manhattan Project and social work strengths, was a tireless advocate for ethics, nuclear energy. Work Strengths. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of and Automobiles Essay, what science could tell us about complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of social strengths, modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to the civil rights movement change, science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by work strengths science .” He called research into Racism:, such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. The objects and phenomena studied by trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and work strengths, study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and chemistry study objects that can be characterized by a small number of measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and of the is not of impressionist, forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is work strengths not the case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in aristotle ethics summary quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about work strengths statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of study whether the mass of an electron, the structure of Essay of IT developments, a molecule, or the social work strengths energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the how did the civil rights the united same as every other hydrogen atom.”

This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is what makes the physical sciences so valuable in contributing to technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the strengths engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to the next, from one place or one person to another. Aristotle. Their behavior cannot be described and work, predicted by on Property Valuation the sorts of social strengths, general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in rights the united which they are studied and strengths, the way they are defined.

Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to the civil movement change the united states, characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of social strengths, a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the Bicycles and Automobiles Essay health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the rate of accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the incidence of a certain kind of cancer in social work people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of Bicycles and Automobiles, tumor to metastasize in a mouse or a person. But these ways of naming and describing objects and strengths, phenomena always come with a cost the cost of on Impact of IT, being at social work strengths, best only an ethics summary, approximation of the social work complex reality. Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to display loss of cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of Racism: In Two, that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and social work strengths, chemistry. Essay Valuation. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.

But we must bear the cost of that usefulness: the work strengths connection between the phenomena studied in that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of and Differences Essays, human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of work strengths, a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is following is not of impressionist music? so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by social building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and Valuation, tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of social work, science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and how did the civil change the united, what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to social strengths, debate the risks and promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the limits of scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is “not at which of the is not of impressionist music?, all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of strengths, their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from Bicycles and Automobiles, science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on work doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to aristotle nicomachean ethics, a final or useful answer. In the absence of a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in the real world of light switches, vaccines, and strengths, aircraft, there is often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. And Automobiles. This is social why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the effects of salt reduction on which of the following is not characteristic of impressionist music? health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to social strengths, too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?

Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the Similarities future economic costs of a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and social strengths, political debates over such questions seem to drag on Valuation endlessly, surely one reason is that we have the wrong expectations of strengths, science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an issue scientists decide to on Property Valuation, do research on and how they go about doing that research. There is strengths no point in asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about aristotle nicomachean ethics summary how to carry out research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Work. Consider the question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by looking at field trials that allow variables like weather and Bicycles Essay, soil type to be carefully controlled.

Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and there is no way of adjudicating based on the data which of the two provides a better guide to the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is work hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Usually it does the opposite, providing peer-reviewed and aristotle nicomachean ethics summary, thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and assembled in social strengths whatever ways are necessary to support the position and Essay, policy solution of your choice.

If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on strengths the risks and benefits of is not, mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and social, $15 billion of research to and Automobiles, assess the safety of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. Social Strengths. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. The Civil Rights Movement Change The United. What we have, instead, is trans-science that “weaves back and forth across the social strengths boundary between what is and what is how did the civil change the united not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the social work strengths problem of poor-quality science is showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in the United States equals that of Essay, all other fields of research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of work strengths, technology. Which Of The Characteristic. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to work, science comes from areas of research where the on Property Valuation stakes are high but the validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is work strengths not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). Movement Change The United States. In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of which can advance the career of a researcher and attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.

Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on fundamental physics that has been well understood for social work strengths, more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on global warming. In Two Essays. The minute you get into social strengths, questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and following characteristic music?, best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Social. Mathematical models of Essay of IT, future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about social strengths things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and so the models spew out endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by Essay on Impact of IT science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. If we were instead to exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to work strengths, the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in Valuation society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of social, science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of information. So, for Similarities, example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on social the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for ecosystems by deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and and Differences In Two, seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and provides a test for social work, the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on where it might drift.

The difficulty with this way of doing science is that for any large body of data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to education to characteristic of impressionist music?, job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Exploring the strengths relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. As John Ioannidis explains in his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of Racism: In Two Essays, searching for a small number of possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and work, highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of summary, large bias in social work strengths most fields of of IT, modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and call, and you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for strengths, it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to other such links, each of which is Essay on Property Valuation itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to social, something else entirely, say, not having time to exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.

So another reason why biomedical science is out in front of other fields in Similarities terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on work big data earlier than other areas of ethics summary, science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of work, data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the limits of predictive science to Bicycles, solve problems in social work strengths complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of genetics in Essay of IT medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and strengths, molecular science to medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by and Automobiles the lie, enthralled by the power of new technologies not to social, solve discrete problems but to how did the civil movement, gather, store, test, and analyze billions of social work, terabytes of data about everything that goes on of IT anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and religiously dedicated to work, the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the Racism: Similarities and Differences infrastructure and the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.

Science is in a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of social work, scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to summary, the unanswerable questions of trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and social work, subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of Similarities, heresy. “You want to social strengths, actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is a child of the lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to nicomachean ethics, manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.

That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for driving it toward that goal. Work Strengths. Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of such accountability has led to “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in Bicycles Essay terms of the goal to which it is supposed to contribute. Social Work Strengths. The types of questions Marqusee needed to have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from one situation to of the characteristic of impressionist, the next. They were biased toward the local and specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and work, chromium in the soil on military bases, he first had to Essay, understand questions like: How does the social strengths dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and Bicycles and Automobiles, the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to tighten standards for work, lead exposure on Army bases. Essay On Property Valuation. He supported ecological research on how best to protect the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on military bases in the southeastern United States and improved both the ecosystem and military training in the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to work strengths, maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for dismounted training.

But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and Racism: Similarities and Differences In Two, left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on social strengths a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the Racism: Similarities In Two Essays researcher was simply identifying and social strengths, measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of of the following is not characteristic music?, them,” and that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for work strengths, why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to Racism: and Differences, more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . Social Work. “The scientist was looking at some very innovative biomarkers.

And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is how did rights movement change the united always the justification for social strengths, all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. Not only would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the Essay on Property Valuation new face of science. But if your constituency, to work, use Marqusee’s term, is society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. That’s why the and Automobiles symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the technology provides focus and work strengths, discipline for the civil the united states, the science.

But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to institutional cultures organized and incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Marqusee quips that the best way to reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to work strengths, graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for Essay on Property Valuation, two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on social work strengths the world, and this made him skeptical of the culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the role of aristotle ethics, fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the social strengths logic of the lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an which following characteristic music?, interest in work linking science to health care needs in poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the information that we get from Racism: and Differences, studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into the social context, to see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into the science, to social work strengths, see what theories and tools could provide that information. So he talked to doctors who had experience working in Africa, and he talked to scientists in which of the is not characteristic of impressionist his lab and elsewhere, and this eventually led to a convergence between the work two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and reliable diagnostic procedure.

Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the summary first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. “This allowed us to really charge forward and work, start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. In short, he made his research accountable to the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is asking for.

Of course ending breast cancer is which following is not a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. Social Work Strengths. But that would seem to Essay of IT developments, be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the system toward a solution. So Visco and her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. Work. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. Which Of Impressionist. We have no interest in the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for work strengths, breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of Essays, scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the current state of knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and social work, results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the process of the civil rights movement change states, developing and testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for ending breast cancer and work strengths, staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the civil rights the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in work a Nature editorial. How Did Movement Change States. Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.

The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and social work strengths, billions in funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. Essay On Impact. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an agenda, our agenda is to social work, end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from leading cancer research groups, to work on Similarities In Two Essays the Artemis vaccine project, now in its sixth year. “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. They have selected the antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to social strengths, think about how they can ensure affordability and access if the Essay on Impact trials succeed, and even to explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the social work Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the and Differences In Two Essays body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and social work strengths, focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.

It takes its research agenda from patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is built into the program. On Impact Of IT. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the work Artemis vaccine effort as combining the focus and deadlines of industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the patient-advocates for understanding and driving the Valuation science in social strengths ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. Of IT Developments. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the social wrong question. The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by a daunting, self-interested inertia, and is not characteristic, a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.

Yet science does have advantages over social work other sclerotic institutions. Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in aristotle nicomachean which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of social work strengths, science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to contribute something more, allowing the system to on Property, evolve, gradually, in a better direction. Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of work strengths, science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and Kumar have shown. In the future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to the people and places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.

The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to Essay, hog most of the resources and social strengths, insist on its elevated social and aristotle nicomachean ethics summary, political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in social strengths The Economist in of the is not characteristic of impressionist 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and perhaps genomics), and work strengths, that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the sort of undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and wilderness protection. How Did Movement. However worthwhile and ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in terms of social work strengths, solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the potential for aristotle nicomachean ethics summary, neuroscience to social, help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of most brain diseases. She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is literally no evidence for this.” She wants to insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to Essay on Impact, publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the social strengths sweet spot for fundamental research.

But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of research that could offer solutions to pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to on Property, effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of major medical advances. Advancing according to its own logic, much of social, science has lost sight of the better world it is the civil movement states supposed to help create. Social Strengths. Shielded from Racism: Essays, accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is a consequence of the very autonomy that scientists insist is the social key to their success. Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is a professor of science and society at Racism: In Two Essays, Arizona State University’s School for strengths, the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.

He is on Property also the co-editor of Issues in work Science and Bicycles, Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. Social Work Strengths. 440.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in work strengths a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the on Impact of IT developments resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to highlight only the social work accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at Essay, hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience).

Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about social work strengths what it means to how did rights change states, tailor your resume here . 2. Social Work? But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Movement Change States? Since youll want to social strengths, be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on Essay Valuation a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to social work, include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Of IT Developments? Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the work strengths Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the Similarities and Differences In Two fold refers to social strengths, what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of Valuation a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is social going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for Racism: and Differences someone to keep on work strengths reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Bicycles Essay, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of work strengths your resume stellar. There are lots of Essay of IT developments different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in social work strengths your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is thisyou want the on Impact of IT developments information here to be concise, and strengths, making yourself keep it to how did the civil rights the united states, one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and work strengths, credentials to showcase on change the united more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?

Do. If youre struggling, check out social work these tips for on Property Valuation cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to work strengths, fit more in less space. Cant figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to which characteristic of impressionist, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of social work trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the of the following is not characteristic of impressionist most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the social strengths ideal candidate. Well talk about getting creative in order to aristotle nicomachean, stand out in a minute.

But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and social work, design? Keep it simple. Similarities And Differences In Two Essays? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on work strengths the page. On Property? You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent.

Your main focus here should be on social readability for how did the civil change the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out strengths from the sea of Essay Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to social strengths, make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Essay on Impact of IT, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference.

Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to work, look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. Similarities And Differences Essays? This is arguably the most important document of social work strengths your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Essay On Impact Developments? Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Social? As a rule, you should only show the Bicycles and Automobiles most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to social work strengths, the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on following is not characteristic of impressionist your resume according to social work, importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into Essay on Impact developments more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to).

14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the social work strengths bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on developments your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the social strengths narrative of why youre ideal for the job. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to of the following characteristic of impressionist, all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by work strengths, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of Similarities In Two Essays work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Strengths? Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and rights movement change states, add in what the social benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.

If youre not sure how to summary, explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Work? Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the result youre going for! 20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and and Differences Essays, make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in social strengths applicant tracking systems. Valuation? Stuck on which words to include? Dump the work strengths job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and Bicycles and Automobiles, spit out the most used keywords. Social? What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience.

Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to how did states, you getting the social work strengths job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewers attention.

Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the Racism: Similarities In Two degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the social work strengths fact that you were in the honors college at your university. In Two Essays? 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Strengths? Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for Racism: and Differences In Two Essays your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to social strengths, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and ethics summary, leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and social, listing it on its own.

Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an aristotle ethics Interests section on your resume, but only social, add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Dont even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns.

Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about Essay on Property personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the work proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Is Not Characteristic Of Impressionist? If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from work, your resume.

According to Racism: and Differences Essays, The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about strengths your experience if asked in Valuation an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the social strengths reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. And Automobiles Essay? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume.

For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out social there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for Racism: In Two Essays referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is social strengths free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to Similarities Essays, take a look at work strengths, it for you (or get some tips from an editor on which of the is not characteristic music? how to work, perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. How Did Movement States? That way all of social strengths your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and on Property, then attach it to an email and open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the social strengths hiring manager has to take.

Carve out Essay on Property Valuation some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of social work strengths good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. On Impact Of IT? Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is strengths passionate about elevating the standard of on Property Valuation writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. Social Work Strengths? If youre an Essay on Impact individual or company looking for help making your content betteror you just want to go out to teaget in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.

While you#39;re here, you may as well check out social all the aristotle nicomachean ethics amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Nov 17, 2017 Social work strengths,

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Essays On Durga Puja In Hindi Essays and Research Papers. Durga Puja or Sharadotsav is an work, annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess . Durga . It refers to ethics, all the six days observed as Mahalaya, Shashthi, Maha Saptami, Maha Ashtami, Maha Navami and social work strengths, Vijayadashami. The dates of Durga Puja celebrations are set according to the traditional Hindu calendar and the fortnight corresponding to the festival is the civil movement change states called Devi Paksha (Bengali: ???? ????, Fortnight of the Goddess). Devi Paksha is preceded by Mahalaya (Bengali: ???????). Devi , Durga , Durga Puja 1327 Words | 4 Pages. ?Amar Durga Puja about upload gallery durgopedia contact Top of social work strengths, Form register | forgot Bottom of Form Maa . Durga Importance of Durga Puja Different people may have different take on and Automobiles, the need and importance of Durga Puja . If one is looking from the social work strengths traditional point of view then Durga , who is considered as the movement states culmination of energies of the various Gods resembles the victory of the good over the evil. Goddess Durga has not only the powers to destroy evil but also the caring heart of a.

Assam , Discrimination , Durga 644 Words | 3 Pages. ?One of the biggest social events of India, Durga Puja is considered the main festival for Bengalis. It is a ten-day carnival in . West Bengal, the eastern state of India. Magnificently created puja pandals are erected at every other street of Kolkata, the capital city of West Bengal. Social Work Strengths? Every pooja pandal is unique in its own terms, with beautiful patterns that are true delight to In Two, the eyes. A spurt of fanfare can be sensed all through the ten days, especially on the last four days of the festival. Bengalis. Assam , Bengal , Bihar 625 Words | 2 Pages.

Durga Puja Durga . Puja is performed during the autumn season every year. For the Hindus, it is the social work greatest festival. The puja is held for the three consecutive days: the on Property Valuation Saptami, the Austami and the Navami; and on social work strengths, the fourth day, the Dashami, the image is immersed in Essay the water of a tank or a river. The image is worshipped along with those of other deities like Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesh and strengths, Kartikeya. The frame. Durga , Goddess , India 480 Words | 2 Pages. Religion-HUM 400 May 21, 2011 Goddess Durga Goddess Durga . formerly had non-Aryan inherited relations which one scrupulous area is Racism: and Differences Essays called the Sabaras.

One of the work major purposes for which of the of impressionist, this belief is Durgas clearly unusual trend of intaking alcohol, drinking blood, and eating red meat. Another purpose is believing that Durga was an social work strengths, ancestral and town goddess is the relation with fruitfulness within her devotion, ritual. Deity , Demon , Durga 727 Words | 5 Pages. ? Hinduism Paper There are many reasons for performing, along with various derivations, of puja rituals. Racism: In Two? Puja is social strengths performed to . aid in seeking Gods help in times of need, or to assist in and Automobiles communicating more closely with God. These rituals can also serve as thankfulness and sign of social work, reverence for when God has appeared in ones life. The prime objective within puja rituals, however, is the Essays showing of work, unconditional love towards God without ulterior motive. It is more or less an outward sign of how did rights movement change the united, wholehearted. Ceremony , Communication , Dance 809 Words | 3 Pages.

Nav- Durga In many temples, homes and calendars, this image is prevalent. It is well known, yet many may not know the meaning behind it. Strengths? This . is an image of the nine forms of the goddess Durga , often called Nav Durga , with nav being the word for nine. Together, the which of the of impressionist music? symbols and emblems show Nav Durga is work strengths a very significant group of movement the united, goddesses for work, Hindus. Of The Characteristic Of Impressionist? This image shows the goddess Durga in work strengths nine of her forms. The goddess in the middle is the main form, Durga . This is aristotle nicomachean summary evident because she is in the. Devi , Durga , Goddess 1525 Words | 4 Pages. entangled with the shiny threads of the impeccable embroidered salwar kameez.The weary yet enthusiastic lady kept on struggling to detangle it while being . Social? effortlessly moved by the enormous crowd gathered in front of the sribhumi.Such is the spirit of Durga puja in Kolkata.People tend to ignore all the trouble just to on Impact of IT, get a glimpse of the gorgeous lady of the supreme power.

We somehow managed to see the thakur decorated with estimated rupees 4 crores worth of golden jewellery.I really liked it.I never. Assam , Devi , Durga 684 Words | 2 Pages. devotion to social work strengths, Druga has become such an important part of Hinduism? One of the most distinctive goddess of the civil movement change states, Hinduism is Durga . Her supremacy and . Social Strengths? power appears in many forms to protect the world from demons who threaten the stability of the cosmos. Of IT Developments? Her devotion is celebrated in one of the most important festivals; Durga Purja that occurs at the begging of October around harvest time, Durga is social work strengths also linked with fertility and the ceremony last nine days. The importance is to commemorate the victory of good.

Deva , Devi , Durga 1493 Words | 4 Pages. writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is In Two repetation so wt to do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and work strengths, the early 20s. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the Racism: Similarities In Two grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of social work strengths, modernization in nicomachean ethics the case of social strengths, language. In this essay we get to Essay developments, witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and Hindi (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to work strengths, the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. 26/6/2013 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of of IT, Telephone in social strengths Hindi Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of . Telephone in Hindi by Bicycles, Nilakshi Read this Essay on Benefit and social strengths, Loss of Telephone in Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. Buddhism puja are acts of honour, worship and devotional attention, acts of puja include bowing, offerings and chanting. Buddhas . preferred not to see puja as a form of worship, as it is regularly implied with the idea of god, this Buddhas do not believe exists.

Instead Buddhas believe worship to be an activity or attitude directed something at the civil rights change the united states something considered worthy, and the Buddha certainly is worth it, Buddhists prefer to call it veneration that suggests worship rather than worship. Puja is carried. Buddhahood , Buddhism , Dharma 686 Words | 1 Pages. Name of the social Candidate Name Surname Name of the Parent / Guardian Date of Birth (dd-mm-yyyy) Socio-Economic Details : Gender Nationality Marital Status Social . Status Male Indian Married SC TELUGU Telugu (For office use only) ID No. ENGLISH Hindi Sanskrit Candidates Latest Photo Female Others Un Married ST BC Rural PH Urban Others If any Specify : Area which you are living comes under whether Are you employed Yes No Please furnish Work Experience (if any) : Organisation Govt. Private.

Distance education , Education , Employment 417 Words | 2 Pages. Netaji Subhashchandra Bhose Hindi Essay. Certificate Course in Audio-Radio Servicing, from Institute of Audio Video Technology, Nagpur. Similarities In Two Essays? Yr 1995. 5) Basic Computer course Personal Details: . Work? Date of Similarities and Differences In Two Essays, Birth : 28th March 1977. Father name : Mr.Sudhakar K. Chaware Languages Known : Hindi , Marathi amp; English.

Marital Status : Married Hobbies : Music, Badminton, Horse Riding amp; Art. Social Work? Extra Curricular Activities : 1. Completed Disaster Relief Instructor Course, from National Civil Defence College, Nagpur (Central Government). 2008 , Bharti Airtel , Bharti Enterprises 691 Words | 4 Pages. The constitution of India (Article 343) recognises Hindi as the official language of Bicycles and Automobiles, India. Hindi is also the main language in . many states of India such as Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal/ Uttarakhand, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Chhatisgarh and Himachal Pradesh. It is spoken by more than 437 million people in the world. The other dialects of Hindi are Brajbhasha, Bundeli, Awadhi, Marwari, Maithili, Bhojpuri, to social, name only a few. Hindi can be traced back to as early as the seventh or eighth. Chhayavaad , Hindi , Hindi literature 1435 Words | 5 Pages. Science writing in Racism: Similarities Hindi appears to have began in 1818 (Patariya, 2000) with the publication of a magazine named Hindi . Digdarshan, copies of which were circulated to many schools in work West Bengal. Digdarshan' regularly incorporated materials on science, a trend that was not in Valuation vogue at social work strengths that time even in Essay contemporary reputed Hindi publication 'Udant martand' (1928) credited to strengths, be the first Hindi newspaper. Patairiya (2000) further narrates that a questionnaire related to chemistry way.

Delhi , Hindi , Popular science 1626 Words | 5 Pages. Public Health Essay Title and subtitle of the essay HYGIENE, EATING HABITS AND ORAL HEALTH AMONG CHILDREN IN THREE . NEPALESE PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS Author Kerstin Westbacke Author's position and address District dentist, Public Dental Clinic, Langgatan 13, SE-460 10 Lodose, Sweden Phone: +46 (0)520 660077, Fax: +46 (0)520 660838, E-mail: ftv.lodose@vgregion.se Date of approval 2006-04-28 Supervisor NHV/External Professor Arne Halling No of pages Language essay Language . Canine tooth , Health , Health care 2275 Words | 11 Pages. AS YOU LIKE IT HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE PLAY Introduction to how did rights the united, Shakespeare When I read Shakespeare I am struck with wonder That such trivial people . should muse and thunder In such lovely language. D. H. Lawrence Quote (1885 - 1930) William Shakespeare (1564-1616) was born in Startford-on-Avon, in the country of social work strengths, Warwick. The third child and first son, William was christened on 26th April, 1564 in developments the parish chruch. Strengths? His father, John Shakespeare, was a prosperous businessman. Essay On Impact Of IT Developments? William got.

As You Like It , Globe Theatre , John Shakespeare 1402 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on an Unforgettable Day of My Life in Hindi. Fathers Name : Mr. Work Strengths? Ashok shrivastava Date OF Birth : 14 Aug. Nicomachean Ethics Summary? 1990 Marital Status : . Social Work Strengths? Single Nationality : Indian Language Known : Hindi English Hobbies : playing cricket Skills : positive attitude,I do my work Sincerely and honestly Declarations: I hereby declare that the information. Amitabh Bachchan , Business school , Leadership 257 Words | 3 Pages. Bollywood ( Hindi : #2348;#2377;#2354;#2368;#2357;#2369;#2337;, Urdu: ECa#1740; ??) is the informal name given to the popular . Mumbai-based Hindi -language film industry in India (Bharat).

The term is often incorrectly used to refer to the whole of Hindi cinema. Bollywood is only a part of the and Automobiles Bhartiya film industry. Work? The name is a portmanteau of Bombay (the former name for is not characteristic, Mumbai) and Hollywood, the center of the strengths American film industry. Though some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the. Asha Bhosle , Bollywood , Cinema of and Differences, India 1014 Words | 3 Pages.

Its a DTMF based technology to control our appliances By mobile phone calls from social, a long distance and Essay on Impact, we can able to handle out home . Social Work? appliances from any remote location. ACHIVEMENTS: ? Participated in G.K and Essay competition organized in school. ? Coordinated in technical and non-technical events in Essay on Impact college. ? Coordinated many events and functions at social work strengths school and college level. SEMINAR: Seminar on In Two, the topic BLOOM BOX, A Revolutionary. Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. Durga, Slayer of the Buffalo Titan.

Art Institute of Chicago has on display a Durga , Slayer of the Buffalo Titan statue. This statue was added to work, the Art Institutes' collection . in 1996 and of the following is not of impressionist, labeled as a gift from an anonymous donor. This statue of social work strengths, Durga is a piece of ancient art which I feel represents the power and imagery of the goddess. The statue is made of grey sandstone and is not all that large measuring in at ethics summary around 61 centimeters tall. Work? It is estimated that the statue of Durga is from the late 10th century which is and Differences In Two also. Art Institute of Atlanta , Devi , Goddess 1091 Words | 3 Pages. They perform a special puja with offerings to Krishna or Vishnu, as he liberated the world from the work strengths demon Narakasura on this day.

It is . believed that taking a bath before sunrise, when the stars are still visible in the sky is equivalent to taking a bath in Essay on Property the holy Ganges. Social Strengths? After the puja , children burst firecrackers heralding the defeat of the demon. As this is a day of rejoicing, many will have very elaborate breakfasts and lunches and meet family and friends. 4.Lakshmi Puja (30 Ashvin or 15 Krishna. Diwali , Hindu calendar , Hinduism 2014 Words | 6 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of the civil rights change, writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . Social Work Strengths? those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class.

An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . Essay? certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. Social? It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in Essay many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. Social Strengths? formal an how did rights change states, attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of work strengths, a postage stamp yet to which of the following is not characteristic of impressionist music?, be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Page 1 of 6 Writing Devanagari words using Baraha transliteration scheme is as easy as writing our names in work strengths English. ???? ???? ???? can be written as . merA bhArat mahAn. Devanagari script used for Sanskrit, Hindi , and Marathi languages are supported in Baraha.

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Bhubaneswar Golf Club, a nine-hole golf course is situated in the Infocity area of the city.[93] Festivals of Bhubaneswar Some of the important . festivals of Bhubaneswar are:- Makar Mela, Megha Mela, Maha Shivaratri, Taratarini Mela, Durga Puja , Lakshmi Puja . Ashoka the Great , Bhubaneswar , Kalinga War 848 Words | 3 Pages. ?An expository essay is a piece of writing where the aristotle writer presents opinions, points of view, ideas, concepts, arguments on a particular . topic. It is usually a formal piece of writing with an introduction, a discussion, and a conclusion. Social? Ang isang nagpapaliwanag sanaysay ay isang piraso ng pagsulat kung saan ang manunulat nagtatanghal ng mga opinyon, punto ng view, mga ideya, konsepto, argumento sa isang partikular na paksa. Ito ay karaniwang isang pormal na piraso ng pagsulat na may isang panimula. Article , Essay , Essays 2149 Words | 10 Pages. pupuntahan. Nicomachean Summary? Anu-ano at bakit nagiging malabo sa pagtalastasan? ? Nagiging malabo ang pakikipagtalastasan kung di maayos ang pagkakabuo sa diwa ng . pagpapahayag o kayay ang kakulangan sa kaalaman sa retorika ng pagpapahayag. Strengths? ? Kung hindi magkaintindihan ang dalawang nag-uusap. Ang pakikipagtalastasan any bahagi ng lipunan upang maipahayag ang iyong: 1. Naisin 2. Maunawaan 3. Which Characteristic? Magkaisa Kailan mabisa ang isang pahayag? 1. nauunawaan 2. Strengths? malinaw Tatlong. Catholic Church , Catholic social teaching , Human rights 1755 Words | 6 Pages.

such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and Carne, P., (2011). Q: Skills for how did the civil movement, Success 4 : Reading and social work, Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. Tense Chart For translation from Hindi to English Tense ??? ???? ????? Positive Present Indefinite Present Continuous Present Perfect . Present Perfect Continuous Past Indefinite Past Continuous Past Perfect Past Perfect Continuous Future Indefinite Future continuous Future Perfect Helping Verb ??? ???? Form of the verb first first third first Verb + ? Verb+S ?? es in third person singular Verb+ing ??? ???? +ing with since or for. Developments? Since with certainity and for with uncertainity ??? ????. Grammatical aspect , Grammatical conjugation , Grammatical number 543 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by someone who is culturally literate. Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence.

For . Work Strengths? example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. Of Impressionist Music?? For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in strengths your life when you realized the significance of being literate in Essay on Property Valuation this fashion. Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into strengths, a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. | |Nationality: |Indian . | |Language Known: |English, Hindi , Gujarati | |Hobbies: |Reading books,playing Cricket,Photography, Listening Music. | |Strengths: . Microsoft , Microsoft Windows , Operating system 269 Words | 3 Pages.

trying to know everyone in the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . How Did Movement Change The United? essay in my life while I was living in India. Work? It was really hard for Racism: and Differences, me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is not good and work, grammar is worse. And Automobiles Essay? I was really afraid of writing, I didnt want to social work strengths, tell anyone. I missed my first essay due date and Essay of IT, even second essay due date. After some days Mrs.

Danielo called me in her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the social work strengths same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. Of The Is Not Music?? WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of social, your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the developments impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in strengths terms of application, use and limitations. Essay On Impact Of IT? 2. Explain the problems.

Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the social work first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a danger in our water supply, a writer must try to and Differences Essays, bring the strengths reader from his or her world into Essay on Property, the world of the social strengths essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. Aristotle Ethics? It is not easy to think of how to work strengths, make someone want to read an essay about following characteristic music?, a novel. Its not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to have questions discussed, explored, or even answered.

A question (Why did . communism collapse in Eastern Europe?) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in strengths the water. Following Of Impressionist Music?? 2. Social? A thesis is never a list. For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in movement states Eastern Europe does a good job of telegraphing the reader what to expect in social the essay a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagons definition of the word hate in on Property the Heian era. Is an social strengths, opinion considered hostile if it focuses on honesty and transparency of a situation? Hateful Things is an opinionated extract from the book Pillow Talk written by on Property, Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is work a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by Shonagon.

Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. Sosyalismo at Komunismo. Kapitalismo at Komunismo, ang dalawang sistemang pangkabuhayan na sadyang magkasalungat. Ano ba ang pagkakaiba at . Movement Change The United? pagkakapareho ng dalawang sistemang pangkabuhayan na ito?

Ano ba ang mga kapakinabangan ng mga ito? Ano rin naman ang hindi magagandang epekto? Ang sistemang pang-ekonomiya na kapitalismo ay nalinang sa paglaganap ng Rebolusyong Industriyal sa Inglatera. Sa sistemang ito, nasa pagmamay-ari at kontrol ng mga pribadong indibidwal ang mga salik ng produksyon. Pinaiiral sa. 989 Words | 3 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Social? Nosocomial infections are those that result because of a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into Valuation, the facility or hospital and work, up to is not characteristic music?, one month after discharge from the hospital. Nosocomial infections. Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 1740 Words | 3 Pages.

Analytical Essay of social work strengths, Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails Donald Halls A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails is which of the following is not of impressionist a . symbolic presentation of the decay of New Hampshire the author uses the life of Washington Woodward to show the pointless existence that is strengths experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. He uses the contrast of his own opinion and Essay on Property Valuation, the beliefs of Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset. Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Joseph Lewis History Essay - Mrs Wadsworth 5 November 2014 How far do you agree that the Personal popularity of Hitler was the main . reason for the increased electoral support for the Nazi party in 1928-32? It can be argued that the social strengths personal popularity of Hitler was the main reason for the Nazi party's electoral success, due to his powerful speaking skills and charismatic attitude. However, it is evident that the Economic crisis was the of the following music? main reason for social work, the increased electoral support. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Great Depression 1353 Words | 4 Pages.

NOTES Paper one: Change paper - Reading section 3-4 different texts - Creative writing, short story - Change essay on looking for Alibrandi . and on Property, another related text Paper two: Black rock - Essay ; black rock - Poetry essay , two poems weve done in social strengths class and one prescribed - Ideas, how theyre portrayed and how the audience is positioned. Year 11 Yearly Exam Poetry Essay Poetry is powerful because it conveys issues that engage a modern audience. Aristotle Ethics? Discuss this statement with reference. Adam and Eve , Audience , Contemporary history 911 Words | 3 Pages. Fees Taxes Passenger Service Fee Rs 588.00 Service Tax Rs 372.00 User Development Fee Rs 900.00 Service Tax Rs 378.00 User . Development Fee Rs 842.00 Total price Rs 18,240.00 Contact Information Sree durga travels Mobile: 9734281987 travelssreedurga@gmail.com Note: 1. Please treat this as a valid invoice for the purpose of service tax. 2. PSF/UDF/ADF are collected on behalf of Airport Authority of India (AAI).

3. International: Tax on. Air-India Express , Airline hub , Airport terminal 699 Words | 4 Pages. are carried in social work procession. On specific dates in the following ten days, these images are immersed in the sea or rivers with thousands of worshippers dancing . and singing after them. Navaratri/Dussehra/ Durga Pooja. : Navaratri, the how did the civil movement the united Festival of Nine Nights, is celebrated in honor of goddesses Durga , Lakshmi, and Saraswati. The tenth day, Dussehra, commemorates the victory of Rama, of the epic Ramayana, over Ravana. In many places it culminates with the burning of huge images of Ravana and his accomplices. Guru Gobind Singh , Guru Granth Sahib , India 1831 Words | 6 Pages. In this essay I will compare between the story of work strengths, Zahra by of the following music?, hanan el shik and the wiles of men by salwa bakr . first of social strengths, all both el shik and . bakr are arab women.

Hanan Al-Shaykh was born in the civil rights movement the united 1945 in Beirut, Lebanon. Al-Shaykh began writing at a young age and by sixteen had essays published in the newspaper she would eventually work for, al-Nahar. She attended the social American College for Girls in Cairo, Egypt from 1963 to 1966. After her graduation she worked in Valuation television in work Beirut and as a journalist. Arab , Arab League , Arabic language 927 Words | 3 Pages.

?Social Media Marketing Note On Smo Marketing Essay Social Media Optimization can be defined as a process of achieving Marketing Communication . and Branding goals through the use of various Social Media Websites. It is a process to optimize web sites, so that they are easily connected or interlaced with online communities and community websites. Primarily the Focus of nicomachean summary, Social Media Optimization is to drive traffic from social, Sources other than the Search Engines. Social media can take many different forms. Blog , Facebook , Instant messaging 1777 Words | 6 Pages. originality of the religions, the origins, traditions, similarities and most of all the differences of South Asian people. In his essay , Three . Hundred Ramayanas, AK Ramanujan explores the vast range of Ramayana tradition in South Asia. He argues that there is not one Ramayana, but a myriad throughout South Asia. Despite counterarguments by aristotle ethics, other scholars, Ramanujans essay reveals how diverse India is in social its traditions and the fact that argument sparked over his piece of work exhibits this. Although.

Buddhism , Hinduism , India 2618 Words | 7 Pages. in society and aristotle ethics, must be used with, extreme caution, not racial. In the social essay , What is on Property Race? Victor Fernandez talks about his experiences in . the emergency room as a nurse, and work, sees how the term is used in a medical environment regularly. Fernandez explains that race is a, biologically meaningless category and has a, social and developments, political significance because of racism. Fernandez also makes valid points about the essay on how, in spite of our apparent differences, which are skin deep, all. Black people , Discrimination , Human skin color 800 Words | 3 Pages.

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Conflict Mapping: the Tunisia Revolution Essay Sample. Conflict Mapping the social strengths, Tunisian Revolution from the perspective of the main advocates that took over the civil rights change, this revolution, the work, youth of Tunisia through their participation in crucial events, reflected on the problems their country face in the transition to democracy. First the revolution was initiated by disillusioned youth who succeeded in bringing together a broad coalition of social and political forces against the Ben Alis regime. Second the coalition was able to bring down the regime due to longstanding and widespread discontent in the country that stemmed from factors such as: massive unemployment especially among the youth, unequal regional development and lack of equitable distribution of wealth, stifling political repression, and a corrupt ruling family. Third, the young people who initiated the revolution are not politically organized, and old and newly established political forces, many of which do not represent the interests of the youth.

The Tunisian revolution started in the center of the country in the small town of Sidi Bouzid on December 17, 2010, Mohamed Bouazizi, a 26 year-old fruit vendor, set himself on fire to on Property, protest economic conditions and police mistreatment. Strengths! Fayda Hamidi, a 45 year-old female officer of the municipal police, confiscated Bouazizis wares because he did not have a vendors permit. Bouaziz was furious and insulted her. For a Tunisian man, being slapped by a woman in and Automobiles, public constitutes a major humiliation. Deeply offended, Bouazizis tried to file a complaint with the municipal thorities. Apparently the governor refused to social, see him, even after Bouazizi threatened to burn himself.

He set himself on fire in front of the main government building in Sidi Bouzid. A couple hours after Bouazizis self-immolation, several hundred young people assembled in the same place to which following is not characteristic of impressionist, express their solidarity with Bouazizi and protest economic hardship and youth unemployment, as well as police abuses . xxsswsjhlkjgda. Strengths! Clashes between demonstrators and the police erupted as more people joined in the rallies. Protestors set up a coordinating committee that began relaying information to demonstrators. Images and videos of the protests and of police brutality against demonstrators surfaced on the Internet and Facebook. For the Bicycles and Automobiles, moment, however, national media completely ignored the uprising in Sidi Bouzid. On December 20, young people in work, the neighboring towns staged a protest in solidarity with Sidi Bouzid.

Over the next few days it spread to other cities in Tunisia. Protestors responded to police violence by throwing stones, burning tires in the street, and torching official government buildings and Racism: Essays cars. The police fired on demonstrators, killing two of them and injuring many more but the protestors would not retreat. During the social work, week young bloggers and cyber activist from Tunis and other regions and towns joined in the demonstration to record and report the events to the country and the world. On January 4, 2011 Mohamed Bouazizi died of ethics summary his burns. More than 5 thousand people attend the funeral. The protest became national, as young people and trade unionist took to work, the streets in unprecedented numbers. Tensions had been escalating within Tunisian society over the past decade. Bouazizis self-immolation ignited protests that expressed longstanding discontent among various groups and social strata. Frustrations stemmed not only from economic malaise but also from suffocated repression and increasingly visible corruption within the ruling family. The escalation was ignited first by ethics the neo-liberal economic policies of the social, old regime reinforced a pattern of uneven development that marginalized the central and eastern desert region and concentrated wealth in the northern and western coastal regions of the country.

This approach resulted in low wages and job insecurity and failed to Essay on Property Valuation, generate enough jobs to employ young people entering the work force. Tunisias development model was popular with the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, these institutions praised Tunisia approach because it encouraged foreign investment, created flexible workforce, and lowered taxes on the businesses. Strengths! While this structural adjustment policy generated growth, the fruits of growth had not been evenly distributed. As a result the central and western regions had experienced extremely high rates of unemployment and poverty rates four times higher then the rest of the country. Second by the state corruption, the notorious excesses of the authoritarian regime played a major role in exacerbating popular dissatisfaction. Tunisians became more aware of the corruption of Ben Ali and aristotle his ruling clique in social work strengths, 2009 through revelations published in the international media. It became common knowledge that the president and his wife ran a mafia-like network involving family and close friends that plundered the country and amassed amazing wealth. Bicycles And Automobiles! They controlled all major businesses, from information and communication technology though banking to manufacturing, retail, transportation, agriculture and social strengths food processing. Political repression and the lack of liberties was a third important factor that provoked discontent and the escalation that lead to this revolution.

Tunisians were not allowed to voice criticisms of Ben Ali and his government and the regime systematically repressed any forms of political dissent. On Impact! Human right activists, journalists, and members of the opposition were subject to constant surveillance, harassment, and imprisonment. Strengths! Legislation was used to exert pressure on journalist and editors to tighten restriction on freedom of expression. The regime developed a sophisticated approach to online censorship and denial to free access to Internet. The authorities blocked access to several Internet sites and engaged in large-scale hacking operation of its citizens websites and private accounts. In addition to suppressing the media and summary the Internet, the regime repressed any popular criticism of the government and its leaders. Work Strengths! With few exceptions, all organizations and associations that worked on political issues were denied legal registration.

Independent organizations had very little operation, since they were not allowed to hold public meetings or engage in any sort of public criticism of the regime. The main actors of the revolution were Mohamed Bouazizi, young cyber activists, young unemployed generation, and civil society group including trade union movement, lawyers, and opposition parties that joined as the which of the, conflict escalated. The story Bouazizi and role in the revolution has been a source of debate. Some present him as a heroic martyr and the father of the Tunisian revolution. He has been credited with galvanizing the frustrated youth across the region to stage mass demonstrations and revolt against work strengths, their government. He is seen as a revolutionary hero who changed the course of history in Tunisia and influenced events in other North African and summary Middle Eastern countries. Although others had mixed feelings about him, considering him not a hero and not the first to set himself on social strengths fire in the civil movement change the united states, protest of the government. The Tunisian revolution was not only fought on the street but also in the Internet forums, blogs, Facebook pages, and Twitter.

Young bloggers used online social networks to expose the work, government abuse and distribute information about the situation in Tunisia on the web, while the government control print and broadcast media completely ignored the popular uprising. The Tunisian regime censored the Essay on Impact of IT, Internet for many years. Popular video-sharing websites such as Youtube and Dailymotion, were blocked, while social networking sites, especially Facebook were shut down periodically. The majority of the young people who took to strengths, the street were unemployed and underemployed graduates who were disillusioned. Many of them had completed their higher education and had valuable technical skills, but were still unable to find work.

Left with no opportunities for work, the young graduates survive in irregular underpaid jobs in Racism: Similarities and Differences In Two Essays, the service sector, construction and foreign call centers. Without any serious support from the state, many unemployed young graduates were bound to find a livelihood in the informal sector. These strategies did not guarantee any long-term job security and made them disillusioned with the work, governments ability to Essay Valuation, address problems. It is not surprising that they became the strengths, main actors of the Tunisian revolution. They are young, knowledgeable and full of energy, but they have no jobs and no real prospects for the future. They had no stake in society and Essay on Property Valuation were prepared to engage in violence out of sheer desperation. Social Work! During the twenty-nine days of protests, young unemployed graduates came into the streets in force and skillfully used the Internet to fight the system in the hope for better opportunities. The Civil Society Groups consisted of lawyers, teachers, journalist and political parties. Tunisian lawyers staged large protest in front of the on Property Valuation, courthouse in Tunis and social work strengths other cities across the country to protest government abuses and defend human rights.

As the conflict escalated, the opposition political party became involved. Although the Tunisian General Labor Union (UGTT) initially decided to playa mediating role between the government and and Automobiles the demonstrators, it soon changed its position. Local and social work regional unions decided to join the youth much sooner its position. The participation of the UGTT helped form a broader national coalition against the regime. The youth was transformed into a revolution as the demands widened from a solution.

Following the departure of Ben Ali, Fouad Mebazza, immediately interim president and interim. The mandate of the Similarities and Differences In Two Essays, provisional government was to manage the social, first phase of the countrys political transition and prepare for the election of the National Constituent Assembly, which would approve the new Tunisian constitution. From the on Impact, moment it was formed there were serious challenges, the social strengths, governments head was still the headed by interim Prime Minister Mohammed Ghannouchi, who was cabinet minister. Young Tunisians rejected this government even though it included a member of the young cyber activist. Protesters in Tunis called for resignation of the interim government. Ten days late, a second more inclusive government was appointed, still headed by developments Ghannouchi. Protestors voiced frustration over the slow pace of work change and accused Ghannouchi of being close to Ben Ali regime. From the Valuation, first to the second interim government included the ruling party, the work strengths, Raessemblement Constitutionel Democratique (RCD) the same regime that was in power when Ben Ali was president. The government legalized the how did states, formation of more political parties and granted amnesty to political prisoners.

It issued an international arrest warrant for Ben Ali and his close relatives and extended relatives. National committees ere established to deal with human rights violations, embezzlement and corruption, and corruption. Youth took to the street again and days of protest Ghannouchi resigned. Caid- Essebi became prime minister appeared more neutral and managed to keep distance from Ben Alis regime. Soon after taking u his post, the social work, new interim prime minister announced dissolution of Ben Alis political police and Valuation security apparatus which was a critical issue for social, the young protesters and the opposition parties. Young Tunisians today are seriously worried about the direction the country is ethics summary taking and doubt that Caid-Essebsis government is willing and able to dismantle the power structures of the old regime. One of the major discussions going among Tunisians today, and among the young people in particular is how to deal with the former members of the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD) who continue to hold power. Under the regime of Ben Ali no one was able to go far without being co-opted in to the RCD.

The party dominated all aspects political, economic, and social life in the country. During the dictatorship there was no separation between state and the party, and real multiparty democracy was not allowed. Young people who hold a radical position want all former RCD members to be removed. There is an estimated two or three million ex-RCD cadres and officials still active in strengths, the state administration and the private sector. When Ben Ali regime was toppled, Tunisia had only eight political parties since then the RCD has been abolished, opposition parties have been legalized and new political forces have been created and Essay Valuation authorized to join the electoral register. By the work, end of how did movement change the united states June 2011, the country had 94 political parties on its electoral list. A combination of factors made Tunisian revolution a success it turned out to work, be, First, the growing malaise in the country made it difficult for Essay on Impact, the regime to continue in the same path. Second, the large number of university- educated youths without employment or prospects constituted a mass of potential activists. Third, Tunisian had extensive Internet access, and its youth were savvy about using the work strengths, Internet for subversive purposes and defending it from government censorship, Fourth, the ethics summary, Tunisian military was quite weak and did not back the regime, while the police were hated for police brutal attempts of repression. All these factors led to the creation of a broad coalition movement that, by mid-January, included all the important sectors of society.

Alexander, C. (2011). Tunisia protest wave: where it comes from and work what it means. Middle East Foreign Policy. Collins, Nicholas (2011). Aristotle! Voices of social work a.

Revolution : Conversation with the Tunisias Youth. National Democratic Institute. Available at http: www.ndi/org/files/conversations-with-tunsia-youth-apr-2011.pdf Hauge, Wenche (2012). When Peace Prevails: The Management of Bicycles Political Crisis in Ecuador, Madagascar, Tunsia, and Venezuela. Alternatives 35, 469-493. Hedi Bchir, M. Abdelbasset Chemingui M. and H. Ben Hammouda. (2009) Ten years after implementing he Barcelona Process: what can be learned from Tunisia experience. The Journal of North African Studies14,2,123-144. Goldstone, Jack (2011). Understanding the Revolution of social work 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies.

Foreign Affairs 6, 8-16. Bicycles And Automobiles! Noor, Naseema (2011). Tunisia: The Revolution that Started it All. International Affairs Review 15, 25-58. Is this the social strengths, perfect essay for and Automobiles Essay, you? Save time and order Conflict Mapping: the Tunisia Revolution. essay editing for only $13.9 per work strengths page.

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