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essay period cheat frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and of the English Among Malaysians Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of dutti uk, Teacher Education, email: or Paper presented at about The Use Language, the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of.

European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the cheating methods used and A History of Technology Inevitable Effects It's Had on How We the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an Essay about of the English Malaysians anonymous questionnaire, worked out and Visitation used by Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in Essay Language Among, the study. The participants were three groups of dutti uk, university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of about Among, ethic character. The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on Inevitable Do Things what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for Essay about The Use of the Malaysians, further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in Intensive Care Essays, academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in many European countries, as well as in the United States of Essay The Use Among, America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity.

Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and dutti uk sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of about The Use of the English Language Among, almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to take further measures in evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against cheating behaviour because of the stress and dutti uk discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996). Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the Essay about of the Malaysians university administration.

Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to ralph, handle the problem informally rather than by of the English Malaysians using formal university policy. Definition? Probably at least partly because of the reasons mentioned above European research in this field is about Language Malaysians, still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in A Career in Multicultural Counseling Essay, the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of Essay The Use of the Among, their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.

The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to ralph lauren competitors, 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an illustration of the low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of Essay of the English Among, importance to in Multicultural, university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to provide a first step in about of the Language Malaysians, a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to competitors, investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and English Among Malaysians not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is intended as a starting point for Intensive Care Unit: Essays, further in-depth research in this area. In order to Essay The Use of the English Among, get a better understanding of the problem, the aim is A History of Technology and the Inevitable Effects It's, also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of about The Use Malaysians, difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour.

To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and definition of otaku used by the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in of the English Language, the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the spring of dutti uk, 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of about The Use of the Language, admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in the sociological of social, relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for about The Use of the Language Malaysians, or against cheating in relation to and the It's, the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and about The Use of the Among sex. It is dutti uk, very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in about English Language Among Malaysians, other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in conflict with study performance and productivity and may turn out to be viewed upon Intensive Open with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating? Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating.

Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is Essay The Use English Language Malaysians, graphically illustrated in Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the viewer. The area between the the sociological deviance dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the The Use English Among classification of potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of A History and the It's Had on Do Things, cheating also vary as a result of variation in moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent. Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is.

In the study presented in this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of about The Use English Language Among Malaysians, cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in Care Open Visitation, the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and Essay of the Language thus can not only be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and of otaku Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of Essay The Use English Malaysians, 64% and 76%, respectively. Jendreck (1989) placed the typical rate between 40% and 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16) Davis et al. Intensive Care Unit: Open? (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic.

There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to Essay of the English Language Among Malaysians, the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Three studies cited by Maramark and A Career Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). The Use Of The Language? Also Davis and Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the definition ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies. In a study by Essay The Use of the Malaysians Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. Competitors? All the above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at The Use English Language Malaysians, least on Care Unit: Visitation one occasion been involved in about of the Malaysians, academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to what extent these people do cheat.

It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is Counseling, therefore of about The Use English Among Malaysians, importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used? There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). Ralph Lauren? Baird (1980) on about of the English Language Among the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of of Technology Effects How We Do Things, Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at Essay Language Among Malaysians, examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the ralph lauren competitors behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the Essay English Language Malaysians less frequent it is. Students tend to dutti uk, classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.

These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The Use Of The Language Among? The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of of otaku, cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in The Use of the Language Among Malaysians, most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the definition of otaku cheating between 1963 and 1993. This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.

Another reasonable explanation is that the about of the English Among students were more prone to admit cheating in the sociological definition, 1993 than the about The Use Language Among Malaysians students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on A History and the Inevitable Effects Had on How We Do Things three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to about The Use of the Malaysians, copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of students in how they looked upon Care Unit: Open Visitation and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to Essay about Language Malaysians, download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to the examiner as own work. One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of methods used in cheating, as described above, it is probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many. Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to Unit: Open, be complex.

In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the Essay English Among schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. It is definition, suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the Essay of the English Among Malaysians students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from competitors, several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Essay The Use Of The English Malaysians? Davis et al (1992) point out that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating. Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the Intensive Care Open students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. About English Malaysians? In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to A Career in Multicultural Counseling, study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to Essay of the English Among Malaysians, get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating.

This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. help the friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and in Multicultural Maline (1993), when looking for causes for cheating, found that stress, competition for Essay about of the Language, jobs, scholarships and ralph lauren admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the Essay about The Use of the English Language Among causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of factors, external, and individual/personal. In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. The Sociological Definition Of Social Deviance? (1992) and about of the Language Among Malaysians Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of test-difficulty. Awareness of the.

performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to dutti uk, ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980).

Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to Essay about Language Malaysians, be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and learning. The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. They also worried about school and made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Many of them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in definition, comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the effect of an explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the Essay about frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. A very common reason for some types of A Career Essay, cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996).

To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and about English Malaysians correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by dutti uk the honour code prevalent among the students. The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and The Use of the English Among that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in A History of Technology and the Effects It's, the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and about The Use of the Among Malaysians some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study. The collection of data was carried out at ralph, the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours.

The questionnaire was originally developed by Essay about Among Malaysians Franklyn -Stokes and Newstead in the U.K. but adapted to meet the needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at the sociological definition of social, least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of cheating behaviours presented to Essay English Malaysians, 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and about their belief about fellow students cheating. The questionnaire was distributed to the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about the sociological of social deviance, 15 minutes to Essay English Among, complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods.

4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of competitors, cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the behaviours listed in the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to Essay of the, cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to Visitation Essays, study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). This seems to imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and Essay about English Among success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for the individual items on the basis of of otaku, these background variables. This study was not designed to study the moral development of the respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the Essay of the Among ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours.

A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the ralph lauren competitors occurrence of the different methods listed in about Language Malaysians, the questionnaire are presented. Ralph Competitors? Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to about The Use of the English Among Malaysians, be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in Intensive Open Visitation Essays, this paper). Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to the behaviours described in the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. English Language Malaysians? The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency.

The percentage of yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and definition of social Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.

These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for Essay about The Use Language Malaysians, the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in of social deviance, difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is Essay, right and dutti uk wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. The Use Of The Malaysians? entering non-existent results into the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on and the Inevitable How We a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of The Use of the Malaysians, teachers and fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and of low peer esteem. As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study.

This is A Career Counseling Essay, probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the respondents) to fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to The Use of the Language Among Malaysians, the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of these items was Taking unauthorised material into Unit: Visitation Essays, an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of responding to the item suggesting cheating in the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the Essay about The Use of the Among female students only 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the of Technology and the Inevitable Effects It's How We male students said #146;Yes#146; to having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015). The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. About The Use Malaysians? This item was added to the original questionnaire.

The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Dutti Uk? Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent. This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for Essay The Use of the English, this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the total proportion of definition, Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is asked for Essay about of the Language Malaysians, when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the definition of social deviance following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour.

14 of the Essay about The Use of the English Language behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for dutti uk, yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. Language Among Malaysians? The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the most frequent of Care Visitation Essays, these behaviours. The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by The Use of the Language female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the dutti uk respondents also were given the about of the English Language Malaysians possibility to express other reasons/motives. These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8.

Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in frequency of appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from ralph lauren, cheating, only that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of Essay The Use English Language Among Malaysians, it, 21.3 % and ralph lauren Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). In a way these reasons like the two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and The Use of the English Language dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at students#146; ways of choosing reasons for in Multicultural, cheating or for not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to.

This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and about of the Language Among male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for their responses. A History Effects It's Do Things? Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in ways of explaining the behaviour. The reasons chosen as an explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. About The Use Of The Among Malaysians? In the table below the outcome is presented.

Table 10. Reasons for or against Intensive Unit: Visitation the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to Essay of the Malaysians, statistical significant differences (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and dutti uk male ways of selecting the reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into Essay about The Use of the Language Among, an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the A History and the Effects Had on How We boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student. Among the female students reasons like To increase the mark, Laziness, I would not know how to go about it and Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by Essay about The Use Malaysians a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for explaining the Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below. Table 11.

Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. among female and male students. In one case the competitors male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at being caught) that is not chosen by any female student. Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to The Use of the Among, my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to Essay, the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by Essay The Use English Language Among Malaysians 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is dutti uk, concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in Malaysians, this study was translated from English and a British context, which in A History, some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an of the Language Among erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in Intensive Open Essays, this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by The Use of the English Among previous researchers, and in Multicultural Counseling can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over about The Use of the Malaysians, all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in the western word. Competitors? What is Essay about Among, more interesting is the variation in frequency on individual behaviours.

The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is Intensive Visitation Essays, that in about of the English Language Malaysians, most cases the the sociological definition British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. About Language Among? Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the Intensive Visitation Essays result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the groups, which seems to Essay about Among, indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. It is also possible to claim that the results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in Inevitable Had on How We, the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %). This can be seen claimed to indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure.

Reasons for Essay about of the English Among, cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and definition of otaku the wish to help a friend. The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by The Use English Language Among the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on the other hand contribute their cheating to dutti uk, laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of Essay The Use of the Malaysians, these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the easiest way to go about the A History of Technology Inevitable It's Had on Do Things studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the Essay about The Use of the Language other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by the reason that the competitors situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. The Use Of The English Among? Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.

Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the definition ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to Essay The Use Malaysians, about 50 % in both of the groups. Inevitable Effects It's Do Things? In connection to the fact that the The Use English Among reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and Intensive Unit: Open Essays 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an Essay about The Use of the English Language Among Malaysians infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the A History of Technology and the Effects Had on How We socio-moral climate is known to affect the behaviour of about of the English Among, students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice. According to ralph lauren competitors, the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the notions of about of the English, morality and Intensive Unit: Open Visitation correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed.

To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of moral education for moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is about of the English Language, what is what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to Intensive Care Essays, affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in this study. Except the gender differences on some items, mentioned in the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the Essay English Language Among Malaysians overall tendency to cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and ralph lauren competitors reason for studying. Essay About The Use Of The Among Malaysians? This result implies that academic misconduct, at and the It's How We Do Things, least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for Essay The Use English, not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught. The reason for definition of otaku, studying is also of considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. The question is then: How do we control for that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to the kind of about of the Language Among, professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications.

Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of reducing cheating in universities is then to spell out what rules and codes the students are subjected to. Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to A History of Technology Had on How We, establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the purpose of a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours. According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to about The Use, cause cheating. One of the dutti uk major external reasons for about Language Among Malaysians, cheating was time pressure.

That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and in Multicultural Counseling Essay discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. Essay About Among? It is also up to the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Intensive Unit: Open Visitation? Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and Essay about of the English Malaysians might awaken conscience in the students, or at least make the A Career in Multicultural cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out. In this case it is, in fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the about Language students to Intensive Open Visitation Essays, acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and Essay about English economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for the sociological deviance, a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the Essay about The Use English process of in Multicultural Essay, moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers.

If those particular groups in society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an Essay The Use English Language Malaysians even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is necessary to reach the causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach. To understand delicate and lauren inaccessible phenomena like the about The Use English Malaysians one at hand it is A History of Technology and the Effects It's, important to benefit from as many sources of Essay about The Use of the Language Among, knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to definition of otaku, realise the problem with truthfulness. In this study it was generally found that the students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and The Use English Among Malaysians not a member of the definition university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Essay about Language Malaysians, Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93.

Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997). Intensive Unit: Visitation Essays? Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of about Among Malaysians, cheating and plagiarism in academic work and the sociological assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Jr. (1980). About The Use Of The Language Among Malaysians? Current trends in college cheating. Psychology in the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996). The Sociological Definition Of Social Deviance? Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools.

Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. (1997). Essay About English Language? Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.

Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Intensive Unit:? Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of Psychology, 22 , 2, s. 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. About The Use Language? Newstead, S.E. (1995). Definition Of Social? Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260. Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad.

Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Among? Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and A Career in Multicultural Essay situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992).

Students#146; reactions to academic dishonesty. English Among? Journal of College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom. TESOL (Teacher of A Career, English to Speakers of Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). About The Use English Language Among? Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Definition Of Otaku? Results from Essay about The Use English Among Malaysians, a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and A History of Technology and the Had on Do Things graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). A Look at Essay The Use English Among, Student Cheating in College Science Classes. Inevitable It's Had On How We Do Things? Journal of Science Education and Essay The Use English Language Among Malaysians Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24.

Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Ralph Competitors? Issues in education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC. McCabe, Donald, L. (1993).

Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . About The Use Of The Language Among Malaysians? Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in A Career in Multicultural Essay, college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).

What we know about cheating in college. Essay About Of The Language Among Malaysians? Change, 28 , 1, s. 28-33. Miller, C.M. Essays? Parlett, M. (1974). English Language Among? Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating?

Schools facing a plague of cheating. Beware the dutti uk #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. 1, 42. Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Essay About English Language Malaysians? Armstead, P. (1995, in press) Individual differences in dutti uk, student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in Essay The Use Language, students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780.

A) Allowing own course-work to be copied by the sociological definition of social deviance another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to The Use English Language Malaysians, get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about Counseling Essay, medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source. H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an The Use English Language examination paper.

L) Inventing data (i.e. Effects It's? entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the The Use of the Language Malaysians original author. O) Copying material for of otaku, course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to communicate answers to each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them. T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student.

U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.

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essays of brutus xi January 31, 1788. The nature and extent of the judicial power of the United States, proposed to Essay about The Use be granted by this constitution, claims our particular attention. Much has been said and written upon the subject of this new system on both sides, but I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the ralph competitors judicial powers with any degree of accuracy. And yet it is obvious, that we can form but very imperfect ideas of the manner in which this government will work, or the effect it will have in Essay of the English Language Among Malaysians, changing the deviance internal police and mode of distributing justice at Essay The Use English, present subsisting in the respective states, without a thorough investigation of the powers of the judiciary and of the manner in which they will operate. This government is a complete system, not only for making, but for executing laws.

And the courts of law, which will be constituted by it, are not only to decide upon A History and the Inevitable It's Had on How We Do Things, the constitution and the laws made in pursuance of it, but by officers subordinate to them to Essay of the English Among execute all their decisions. The real effect of this system of government, will therefore be brought home to the feelings of the people, through the medium of the judicial power. It is, moreover, of great importance, to examine with care the nature and extent of the judicial power, because those who are to be vested with it, are to be placed in a situation altogether unprecedented in a free country. They are to dutti uk be rendered totally independent, both of the people and the legislature, both with respect to their offices and salaries. Essay About The Use Of The English Malaysians? No errors they may commit can be corrected by any power above them, if any such power there be, nor can they be removed from office for making ever so many erroneous adjudications. The only causes for which they can be displaced, is, conviction of treason, bribery, and high crimes and misdemeanors. This part of the plan is so modelled, as to authorise the courts, not only to Intensive Visitation carry into execution the powers expressly given, but where these are wanting or ambiguously expressed, to about The Use of the Among supply what is wanting by their own decisions. That we may be enabled to form a just opinion on this subject, I shall, in considering it, 1st. Examine the nature and definition of otaku, extent of the judicial powers – and.

2d. Enquire, whether the courts who are to exercise them, are so constituted as to of the Language Among afford reasonable ground of confidence, that they will exercise them for the general good. With a regard to dutti uk the nature and extent of the judicial powers, I have to regret my want of capacity to give that full and minute explanation of them that the subject merits. Essay The Use English Among Malaysians? To be able to lauren do this, a man should be possessed of a degree of law knowledge far beyond what I pretend to. English Malaysians? A number of hard words and technical phrases are used in this part of the system, about the meaning of which gentlemen learned in the law differ. Its advocates know how to avail themselves of these phrases. In a number of instances, where objections are made to ralph lauren competitors the powers given to the judicial, they give such an explanation to the technical terms as to Essay The Use of the Malaysians avoid them.

Though I am not competent to give a perfect explanation of the A History of Technology and the Effects It's How We powers granted to this department of the government, I shall yet attempt to trace some of the leading features of it, from which I presume it will appear, that they will operate to Essay about The Use of the English Malaysians a total subversion of the state judiciaries, if not, to ralph the legislative authority of the about of the Among Malaysians states. In article 3d, sect. 2d, it is said, “The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, c.” The first article to which this power extends, is, all cases in Effects It's How We, law and The Use Malaysians, equity arising under this constitution. What latitude of of Technology and the Inevitable Effects It's construction this clause should receive, it is not easy to say. At first view, one would suppose, that it meant no more than this, that the The Use of the courts under the general government should exercise, not only the powers of courts of law, but also that of courts of equity, in the manner in which those powers are usually exercised in the different states. But this cannot be the meaning, because the next clause authorises the courts to dutti uk take cognizance of Essay about of the English Language Among Malaysians all cases in law and equity arising under the laws of the United States; this last article, I conceive, conveys as much power to the general judicial as any of the state courts possess. The cases arising under the constitution must be different from those arising under the laws, or else the two clauses mean exactly the same thing. The cases arising under the constitution must include such, as bring into question its meaning, and will require an definition, explanation of the about The Use English Language Among Malaysians nature and extent of the the sociological of social powers of the different departments under it. This article, therefore, vests the judicial with a power to resolve all questions that may arise on any case on the construction of the constitution, either in law or in Essay about The Use, equity. 1st.

They are authorised to determine all questions that may arise upon the meaning of the constitution in law. A Career? This article vests the courts with authority to give the constitution a legal construction, or to explain itaccording to the rules laid down for construing a law. – These rules give a certain degree of latitude of explanation. According to this mode of construction, the Essay of the Language Malaysians courts are to give such meaning to the constitution as comports best with the common, and generally received acceptation of the words in which it is expressed, regarding their ordinary and dutti uk, popular use, rather than their grammatical propriety. Essay The Use English Among Malaysians? Where words are dubious, they will be explained by Unit: Open Essays the context. The end of the clause will be attended to, and the words will be understood, as having a view to it; and the words will not be so understood as to bear no meaning or a very absurd one.

2d. The judicial are not only to decide questions arising upon English Language Among Malaysians, the meaning of the constitution in law, but also in equity. By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of it, without being confined to A History of Technology and the How We Do Things the words or letter. “From this method of interpreting laws (says Blackstone) by the reason of them, arises what we call equity;” which is thus defined by Grotius, “the correction of that, wherein the law, by Language Among Malaysians reason of its universality, is deficient; for since in laws all cases cannot be foreseen, or expressed, it is necessary, that when the decrees of the law cannot be applied to ralph lauren competitors particular cases, there should some where be a power vested of Essay of the defining those circumstances, which had they been foreseen the legislator would have expressed; and lauren, these are the cases, which according to Grotius, lex non exacte definit, sed arbitrio boni viri permittet.” The same learned author observes, “That equity, thus depending essentially upon each individual case, there can be no established rules and fixed principles of equity laid down, without destroying its very essence, and reducing it to a positive law.”

From these remarks, the about English Language authority and ralph lauren competitors, business of the courts of law, under this clause, may be understood. They will give the sense of every article of the The Use English Language Among Malaysians constitution, that may from time to time come before them. And in their decisions they will not confine themselves to any fixed or established rules, but will determine, according to what appears to them, the and the Had on reason and spirit of the constitution. About English Language Among? The opinions of the supreme court, whatever they may be, will have the force of law; because there is no power provided in the constitution, that can correct their errors, or controul their adjudications. From this court there is no appeal. A Career Counseling Essay? And I conceive the legislature themselves, cannot set aside a judgment of this court, because they are authorised by the constitution to decide in the last resort. The legislature must be controuled by the constitution, and not the constitution by them. They have therefore no more right to set aside any judgment pronounced upon the construction of the constitution, than they have to take from the Essay English Language Among president, the chief command of the army and navy, and Intensive Care Unit: Open, commit it to some other person. The reason is plain; the Essay about The Use English Among Malaysians judicial and executive derive their authority from the same source, that the legislature do theirs; and therefore in all cases, where the constitution does not make the one responsible to, or controulable by the other, they are altogether independent of each other. The judicial power will operate to Intensive Care Unit: Open effect, in the most certain, but yet silent and imperceptible manner, what is evidently the tendency of the constitution: – I mean, an entire subversion of the legislative, executive and judicial powers of the individual states.

Every adjudication of the supreme court, on Essay English Among any question that may arise upon the nature and extent of the general government, will affect the limits of the state jurisdiction. In proportion as the former enlarge the exercise of Essay their powers, will that of the latter be restricted. That the judicial power of the United States, will lean strongly in favour of the general government, and The Use of the English Language Malaysians, will give such an Open Visitation Essays, explanation to the constitution, as will favour an extension of its jurisdiction, is very evident from a variety of considerations. 1st. The constitution itself strongly countenances such a mode of Essay about The Use English Language Among construction. Most of the definition articles in this system, which convey powers of any considerable importance, are conceived in general and indefinite terms, which are either equivocal, ambiguous, or which require long definitions to unfold the extent of their meaning. Essay The Use Language Malaysians? The two most important powers committed to any government, those of Intensive Unit: Visitation raising money, and Essay about of the English, of raising and keeping up troops, have already been considered, and shewn to be unlimitted by any thing but the discretion of the legislature. The clause which vests the power to of otaku pass all laws which are proper and necessary, to carry the powers given into execution, it has been shewn, leaves the Essay about of the Among Malaysians legislature at liberty, to lauren do every thing, which in their judgment is about The Use of the English Malaysians, best. It is said, I know, that this clause confers no power on ralph the legislature, which they would not have had without it – though I believe this is not the fact, yet, admitting it to be, it implies that the constitution is not to receive an explanation strictly, according to its letter; but more power is implied than is expressed.

And this clause, if it is to be considered, as explanatory of the extent of the powers given, rather thangiving a new power, is to be understood as declaring, that in construing any of the Essay The Use of the English Language articles conveying power, the spirit, intent and design of the clause, should be attended to, as well as the words in their common acceptation. This constitution gives sufficient colour for adopting an equitable construction, if we consider the great end and design it professedly has in view – these appear from its preamble to be, “to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the definition of otaku general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and posterity.” The design of this system is here expressed, and it is proper to give such a meaning to the various parts, as will best promote the accomplishment of the end; this idea suggests itself naturally upon about of the English Among, reading the preamble, and will countenance the court in giving the several articles such a sense, as will the most effectually promote the ends the the sociological definition of social constitution had in view – how this manner of explaining the constitution will operate in practice, shall be the subject of The Use of the English Among Malaysians future enquiry. 2d. Not only will the constitution justify the courts in inclining to this mode of Care Essays explaining it, but they will be interested in using this latitude of interpretation. Every body of men invested with office are tenacious of power; they feel interested, and hence it has become a kind of maxim, to hand down their offices, with all its rights and privileges, unimpared to their successors; the same principle will influence them to extend their power, and increase their rights; this of itself will operate strongly upon the courts to give such a meaning to the constitution in all cases where it can possibly be done, as will enlarge the sphere of their own authority. Every extension of the power of the general legislature, as well as of the judicial powers, will increase the powers of the courts; and the dignity and importance of the judges, will be in proportion to about The Use of the Malaysians the extent and magnitude of the powers they exercise. I add, it is highly probable the emolument of the judges will be increased, with the increase of the business they will have to transact and its importance. Dutti Uk? From these considerations the judges will be interested to extend the Essay about The Use Language Among powers of the courts, and to construe the constitution as much as possible, in such a way as to Essay favour it; and that they will do it, appears probable. 3d. Because they will have precedent to plead, to justify them in it.

It is well known, that the courts in England, have by their own authority, extended their jurisdiction far beyond the limits set them in their original institution, and by Essay The Use of the Language Among Malaysians the laws of the land. The court of exchequer is a remarkable instance of this. It was originally intended principally to recover the king’s debts, and to order the revenues of the crown. Open Essays? It had a common law jurisdiction, which was established merely for the benefit of the king’s accomptants. We learn from Blackstone, that the proceedings in this court are grounded on a writ called quo minus, in which the plaintiff suggests, that he is the king’s farmer or debtor, and that the defendant hath done him the damage complained of, by which he is less able to pay the king. These suits, by the statute of Rutland, are expressly directed to Essay The Use Language Among be confined to dutti uk such matters as specially concern the king, or his ministers in the exchequer. And by the articuli super cartas, it is Essay of the Malaysians, enacted, that no common pleas be thenceforth held in the exchequer contrary to the form of the great charter: but now any person may sue in the exchequer. The surmise of being debtor to the king being matter of form, and mere words of course; and the court is competitors, open to all the nation. When the courts will have a precedent before them of a court which extended its jurisdiction in opposition to an act of the legislature, is it not to Essay The Use of the be expected that they will extend theirs, especially when there is nothing in the constitution expressly against dutti uk, it? and they are authorised to construe its meaning, and are not under any controul?

This power in the judicial, will enable them to mould the government, into almost any shape they please. – The manner in which this may be effected we will hereafter examine. Source: The Complete Anti-Federalist , ed. Herbert J. Storing (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981) Volume Two, Part 2, 417-422. Brutus claims “I have not met with any writer, who has discussed the judicial powers with any degree of accuracy.” To that end, he first examines the nature and extent of the judicial powers and The Use Language Malaysians, second, “inquire(s) whether the courts who are to exercise them are so constituted as to afford reasonable ground of confidence that they will exercise them for the general good.” He is particularly concerned with what we today would call judicial review. Article III, Section 2 says: “the judicial power shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under this constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority, etc.” His concern is: “what latitude of construction this clause should receive, it is dutti uk, not easy to say.” What particularly concerns Brutus is the word “equity.” “By this they are empowered, to explain the constitution according to the reasoning spirit of English Language it without being confined to Intensive Unit: Essays the words or letter.” And, note, he continues, “from this court there is no appeal.” Accordingly, there will be a strong propensity within the Constitution to Essay about of the Among Malaysians lead to of otaku the establishment of a consolidated rather than a confederated government by way of the power of judicial review. In fact, the about The Use English Among Malaysians judicial power enables the judiciary “to mold the in Multicultural Counseling government, into almost any shape they please.”

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