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De Little Women de Louisa May Alcott aux Quatre filles du docteur March Les traductions francaises d’un roman de formation au feminin. Universite Concordia, Montreal, Canada. Un article de la revue Meta. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l'Universite de Montreal, 2003. Salons. The Gregorian! Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. L’article examine sept traductions et adaptations francaises de Little Women de Louisa May Alcott (1868), actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices en librairie ou en bibliotheque.

Afin d’observer les representations de la feminite qui y sont donnees a lire au lectorat francophone, l’analyse se centre sur le personnage de Jo, l’heroine anti-conformiste qui n’hesite pas a exprimer ouvertement son refus des limitations imposees a la condition feminine. Character In The! Il apparait que la description physique et psychologique, les prises de parole et les actes du personnage ont subi, dans la plupart des versions francaises, des distorsions qui font de la Jo March francaise un personnage bien edulcore. This article examines seven French translations and the gregorian chant adaptations of polyurethane Little Women by the gregorian, Louisa May Alcott (1868), nowadays available to polyurethane, young female readers in the gregorian chant bookstores or in polyurethane solvent libraries. The Gregorian Chant! In order to the main character, study the the gregorian representations of darcy proposes womanhood for the gregorian, the French-speaking readership, the ostomy teaching analysis focuses on the gregorian the character of ostomy teaching Jo, the the gregorian chant anti-conformist heroine who openly rejects the why did jews constraints imposed on the gregorian women. Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth Analysis! It seems that most of the chant French versions depict a Jo March who has been significantly expurgated; her physical and hitler hate psychological descriptions are distorted, as are her speech and the gregorian chant actions.

Peu de romans destines a un jeune public feminin, tous pays et langues d’origine confondus, ont connu en France et dans les pays francophones un succes aussi unanime et aussi durable que Little Women (1868) de Louisa May Alcott. Who Is Character In The! Depuis les premieres traductions, qui suivirent de peu la publication (1872, 1880), le livre n’a cesse d’etre diffuse sous divers titres et en diverses traductions et adaptations. The Gregorian! Comme ce roman de formation suit l’evolution de quatre soeurs dont les ages s’echelonnent de seize a onze ans au debut du recit, il nous a semble pertinent de centrer cette etude sur les representations de la feminite, particulierement a travers le personnage de Jo, alter ego de l’auteure et heroine implicite, qui entretient des relations conflictuelles avec les modeles de conduite autorises. Etant donne l’abondance des traductions francaises, il a fallu definir des criteres de selection. Ostomy Teaching! Il eut ete interessant d’adopter une approche diachronique et d’observer l’evolution des representations de la feminite dans des demarches traductives s’echelonnant sur plus d’un siecle. The Gregorian! Dans le cadre restreint de cet article, nous avons opte pour l’approche synchronique et le point de vue de la reception. Dalton Atomic Theory! Il nous a en effet paru justifie d’examiner la gamme de traductions francaises actuellement accessibles aux jeunes lectrices, soit en librairie, soit en bibliotheque. The Gregorian Chant! Apres une enquete effectuee a partir de catalogues electroniques [1], sept traductions ont ete retenues pour une analyse contrastive : cinq actuellement disponibles dans les inventaires des libraires et deux autres plus anciennes, mais encore en circulation dans le reseau des bibliotheques. Apres avoir situe Little Women dans l’histoire de la litterature pour la jeunesse et de la litterature americaine, nous dresserons un panorama des traductions et adaptations successives du roman.

Quant a l’analyse contrastive proprement dite des traductions retenues, nous l’avons ordonnee autour de ce que Philippe Hamon appelle les « systemes normatifs-evaluatifs », mis en place par le regard, la parole, les actes et gestes, les sensations et le sens esthetique, le savoir-vivre enfin des personnages (Hamon 1984 : 103-217). Proposes! Comme l’anticonformisme est le trait principal du personnage de Jo dans le texte source, une grille d’analyse prenant en charge la question des valeurs et des hierarchies dans le texte litteraire s’imposait. Chant! L’hypothese etait que le personnage de garcon manque, du tomboy , the Sweatshops Essay man of the the gregorian family, avec ses refus et ses ambitions, susciterait des resistances chez les traducteurs pour la jeunesse. Polyurethane! L’analyse a bel et bien corrobore que c’etait Jo qui inspirait les plus grands ecarts dans les traductions, qu’il s’agisse du portrait physique et psychologique, ou des actions et des prises de parole les plus importantes. Nee en 1832 en Pennsylvanie, Louisa est elevee dans une famille et un milieu peu ordinaires. The Gregorian Chant! Son pere Bronson Alcott, philosophe largement autodidacte et pedagogue admirateur de Pestalozzi, cotoie Henry David Thoreau et Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ostomy Teaching! Durant l’enfance de l’auteure, il se lance dans diverses experiences communautaires.

Utopie fourieriste, philosophie transcendentaliste, ecole experimentale, l’enfant grandit dans ce climat intellectuel que l’on a pu appeler American Renaissance (Reynolds 1988). Chant! Ce cercle cosmopolite est en contact avec les grands mouvements socio-politiques europeens. Nike Essay! La mere, Abigail May, issue de l’ establishment bostonien et d’une famille influente de l’Eglise unitarienne, admire la militante feministe Margaret Fuller ( Woman in the gregorian chant the Nineteenth Century , 1845). Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth! Selon la formule de Madeleine Stern, feminism was in the gregorian chant Louisa May Alcott’s genes (Stern 1996 : vii). Nike Inc And Sweatshops! En outre, les Alcott sont des abolitionnistes convaincus. The Gregorian Chant! Avec l’aide de ses filles, Abigail May Alcott organise des ateliers d’alphabetisation pour les femmes noires (Barton 1996 : 152). In The Giver! Pour Louisa May Alcott, que sa famille a placee au centre des grands debats de l’epoque, le feminisme est la reforme des reformes. The Gregorian! La critique feministe americaine l’a bien compris, qui considere Little Women comme l’un des premiers Female Bildungsromane americains (Langland 1983). Des sa parution en 1868, Little Women, or Meg, Jo, Beth, and adolf hitler hate Amy a ete un best-seller. The Gregorian! Ecrit en deux mois, il est d’inspiration nettement autobiographique.

L’entree du journal de Louisa pour mai 1868 nous apprend que le roman est entrepris a la demande de son editeur, qui lui demande une girls’ story . Nike Sweatshops Essay! Ainsi Louisa May Alcott, qui avoue ne pas beaucoup connaitre et aimer les filles, a part ses soeurs, fait-elle partie du club select des ecrivains pour la jeunesse mandates par leurs editeurs [2] ! Little Women , qui assure instantanement la notoriete a la romanciere, n’est pas sa premiere oeuvre publiee. Chant! En 1854 etait paru un recueil de contes, Flower Fables , ecrit a l’origine pour la fille d’Emerson. Atomic Theory! Mais il faut surtout mentionner les recits abolitionnistes et feministes qui precedent Little Women de quelques annees, parmi lesquels Moods (1864) et Hospital Sketches (1863) qui transpose son experience d’infirmiere a Washington pendant la Guerre de Secession. The Gregorian Chant! Devant le succes de Little Women , l’editeur lui demande une suite : Good Wives parait en 1869. Inc And Sweatshops Essay! Ce n’est que dans les annees 1880 que les deux volumes seront reunis. Chant! Au fil des annees, Louisa May Alcott poursuit l’histoire de la famille March : Little Men (1871), Jo’s Boys (1886). Dalton Theory! Pour la jeunesse, elle signe aussi Eight cousins (1875), Rose in the gregorian Bloom (1876) [3] et Under the who is the main giver Lilacs (1877), et elle assume, entre ses deux voyages en Europe, la direction du journal Merry’s Museum (1868-1869).

Bien que l’oeuvre de Louisa May Alcott comporte plusieurs tendances : romans gothiques, fictions engagees sur le racisme et le feminisme, c’est comme auteure de Little Women qu’elle s’est acquis une renommee internationale : The Children’s Friend donne lieu de nombreuses conferences et elle n’hesite pas a rencontrer son lectorat [4]. Chant! De son vivant, un million d’exemplaires du roman sont vendus. Solvent! Little Women et sa suite Good Wives figurent dans toutes les collections de chefs-d’oeuvre internationaux pour la jeunesse. The Gregorian! Les auteurs de la recente Louisa May Alcott Encyclopedia soulignent le caractere resolument novateur du roman, particulierement en ce qui a trait aux representations feminines (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 181) et, globalement, sa valeur litteraire [5]. Ostomy Teaching! En terminant, il peut etre interessant de rappeler que dans l’edition de 1948 des Children’s Illustrated Classics , une note de l’editeur fait pourtant allusion aux resistances que l’engagement nordiste de cette fiction pourrait susciter chez certains lecteurs. The Gregorian! Laissant entendre que le livre n’est plus lu par les jeunes generations, ce paratexte encourage les lecteurs eventuels a aller au-dela de la lecon morale explicite [6]. Ostomy Teaching! A en juger par le nombre d’editions et de traductions recentes des Quatre filles du docteur March , il est clair que ce dernier aspect – le traumatisme de la guerre civile etant peu probable – n’a pas diminue l’interet des lectrices francophones ! Traductions et adaptations francaises. Ce qui frappe des qu’on aborde la reception de Little Women en milieu francophone, c’est le nombre et la constance des reeditions. The Gregorian Chant! Une consultation du catalogue de la Bibliotheque nationale de France donne une idee precise des traductions et adaptations « nouvelles », des « adaptations abregees », des « abreges » proposes par les divers editeurs. Polyurethane! Pour les annees 1990, pas moins de neuf de ces versions plus ou moins nouvelles ont ete deposees [7].

Puisque l’objectif n’est pas ici de faire l’histoire de la traduction francaise de Little Women , un survol des traductions successives suffira a eclairer notre propos. La premiere traduction remonte a 1872, soit quatre ans apres la publication de l’original ; publiee a Lausanne, elle est l’oeuvre de Madame Remy, connue egalement pour un manuel de francais [8]. Chant! La traductrice dit avoir « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur ». To Elizabeth Analysis! Puis, en 1880, Pierre-Jules Hetzel, celebre editeur francais pour la jeunesse, publie sous le pseudonyme de P.-J. The Gregorian! Stahl, Les Quatre filles du docteur Marsch [sic] d’apres L.M. Theory! Alcott , pour son « Magasin d’education et de recreation », fonde en 1864. Chant! P.-J. Polyurethane! Stahl a joue un role decisif dans la transmission de Little Women en domaine francophone. The Gregorian! Cette adaptation, plus ou moins retouchee par les editeurs et des adaptateurs anonymes, continue d’avoir cours et nous l’avons incluse dans le choix de traductions. Darcy To Elizabeth! Elle a impose au recit des distorsions qui n’ont pas ete rectifiees depuis. Ainsi c’est Stahl qui impose cette fiction du « docteur » March, en faisant jouer au pere dans l’armee nordiste, non pas le role d’un aumonier, mais celui d’un medecin [9]. The Gregorian! Version plus acceptable dans une France republicaine ou s’affrontent les tenants du catholicisme ultramontain et de la laicite, peu receptive dans son ensemble au mariage des guides spirituels.

L’editeur estimait en effet que le livre « tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu […] reussir en France [10] ». Dalton Atomic Theory! Si les traductions recentes ont corrige l’erreur dans le texte, le titre demeure inchange, et les lectrices francophones continuent de croire que le pere des soeurs March est docteur en medecine. Chant! Son absence dans le premier tome permet d’ailleurs de ne pas se poser trop de questions. Nike Inc And! La seconde modification substantielle apportee au texte est le gommage systematique de l’intertexte bunyanien. Chant! Chez Stahl, la Morale familiere remplace le Pilgrim’s Progress . In The Giver! Or, ce texte cle de la spiritualite protestante (1678), evoque des le premier chapitre, imprime son mouvement au texte d’Alcott ; plusieurs titres de chapitres, completement modifies dans la traduction, y renvoient explicitement : « Playing Pilgrims » (ch. Chant! 1), « Burdens » (ch. Ostomy Teaching! 4), « Jo meets Apollyon » (ch. The Gregorian! 8), etc. Dalton! Enfin l’adaptateur, qui de son propre aveu ne connaissait pas le second tome, a imagine un denouement, dont s’inspirent quelques adaptations actuelles.

La maison Hachette, qui racheta le fonds Hetzel, a publie l’adaptation de Stahl, sensiblement remaniee, dans les collections « Ideal-Bibliotheque » et « Bibliotheque Verte » [11]. The Gregorian! L’editeur belge Casterman propose une reecriture anonyme basee sur cette adaptation, qui est dans l’ensemble plus fidele au texte de 1880 que ladite traduction de Stahl publiee par Hachette, comme nous le verrons plus loin. Solvent! On voit donc que les textes issus de l’adaptation de la fin du xix e siecle connaissent encore une importante diffusion. Dans les annees 1930 et 1940, Little Women a ete traduit et edite pour un public adulte [12]. The Gregorian Chant! Au cours des annees 1980, apparaissent, dans des collections destinees a la jeunesse, des textes plus conformes a l’ethique moderne de la traduction, qui ne se permettent pas de coupures ou d’ajouts. Ostomy Teaching! Nous en incluons deux dans le corpus, celle de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard (Folio-Junior et Gallimard Jeunesse) et celle de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche/Flammarion. Quelques mots suffiront a presenter les six adaptations et traductions selectionnees pour l’analyse comparative, que nous classons par ordre chronologique : l’adaptation de P.-J. Chant! Stahl reeditee, avec diverses modifications, par Hachette dans « Ideal-Bibliotheque » ; la traduction anonyme [13] des editions G.P., collection « Rouge et Or » – ces deux ouvrages sont epuises mais connaissent encore une grande diffusion dans les bibliotheques scolaires et municipales qui n’ont pas toujours fait l’acquisition de nouvelles editions – ; l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, basee sur celle de P.-J.

Stahl ; la traduction de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard ; la traduction de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche ; enfin il nous a paru interessant d’inclure une adaptation recente, celle de Remi Simon pour Nathan. Darcy Analysis! Nous avons egalement examine celle de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, mais nous n’avons pu l’utiliser dans une comparaison systematique, etant donne l’importance des coupures apportees au texte (14 chapitres sur 23). The Gregorian Chant! Dans les passages traduits, on atomic theory peut observer une dependance a l’egard du texte de P.-J. The Gregorian! Stahl. In The Giver! Nous nous y referons ponctuellement. Avant d’examiner les traductions sous l’angle particulier que nous avons choisi, quelques commentaires plus generaux s’imposent. The Gregorian! La traduction parue chez G.P. Hitler Hate! s’avere dans l’ensemble la plus litterale ; elle n’a pas craint de restituer les references a Bunyan en les explicitant [14]. The Gregorian Chant! Le texte de Casterman, base sur P.-J. Ostomy Teaching! Stahl, comme le prouvent de nombreuses formulations identiques, notamment dans les titres de chapitres, comporte des omissions, mais conserve aussi de son modele certains ajouts de l’adaptateur qui ont ete supprimes chez Hachette.

Ainsi, au chapitre 3, quand Meg et Jo se rendent au bal, il precise que Madame March n’a pu les accompagner, car elle etait souffrante et qu’elle a demande a une amie de veiller sur ses filles [15]. The Gregorian! Quand Jo rend visite a Laurie dans sa chambre, elle glose que le jeune voisin a ete malade et qu’il n’est qu’un « petit garcon » [16]. Why Did Adolf Hitler Jews! A la fin du chapitre 12, se trouve une longue addition sur les vertus de l’Amerique et l’independance des jeunes filles americaines [17]. The Gregorian! Par ailleurs, cette traduction a une nette tendance a la miniaturisation, designant regulierement les protagonistes comme des « petites » filles et des « petits » garcons [18]. Adolf! Dans l’ensemble, elle ennoblit le caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin. The Gregorian Chant! L’adaptation de Remy Simon pour Nathan se permet des ajouts sur le ton et les gestes dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, modifiant imperceptiblement le caractere des personnages. Essay! Ainsi, dans le chapitre 1, Meg regarde « d’un oeil critique » sa vieille robe « encore tres mettable », Jo siffle « d’un air meprisant ». Chant! Amy est qualifiee d’« insupportable ». Character! Quant a la servante, elle est regulierement appelee la « vieille » Hannah. Chant! Enfin les traductions de Paulette Vielhomme-Callais pour Gallimard et de Maud Godoc pour Castor-Poche se sont attachees a rendre integralement et fidelement l’oeuvre d’Alcott. Polyurethane! Nous examinerons leurs choix de traduction sur la question de la feminite. Une jeune feministe americaine en francais.

Comme il a ete dit plus haut, la « poetique du normatif » proposee par Philippe Hamon a servi de cadre theorique a notre analyse des textes source et cible. The Gregorian! Nous avons concentre l’analyse des traductions sur les passages ou le personnage de Jo se definissait ou etait vue par les autres, sur ceux ou elle se distinguait par les actions ou l’expression des gouts et de la volonte : les « nexus normatifs » (Hamon 1984 : 220). Ostomy Teaching! Les travaux en linguistique de l’enonciation sur les marques de subjectivite nous ont aussi guides. The Gregorian! Nous avons particulierement examine la traduction – et souvent la non-traduction – des phrases introductives du discours rapporte, porteuses d’indication sur les sentiments, la gestuelle, la voix des personnages. Proposes! Dans les portraits et les descriptions, une attention particuliere a ete accordee aux termes evaluatifs, particulierement les adjectifs (Kerbrat-Orecchioni 1980 : 83-100), dont la traduction donne lieu a des choix tres revelateurs. The Gregorian Chant! Pour la brievete, nous refererons desormais aux traductions et traductions par les abreviations : H (Hachette), GP (G.P.), C (Casterman), N (Nathan), FJ (Folio Junior) et CP (Castor Poche), initiales de leurs editeurs respectifs, et a l’original par l’abreviation LW, toutes suivies du numero de page.

L’abreviation S est occasionnellement utilisee pour envoyer a l’adaptation de Stahl de 1880. Polyurethane Solvent! Des tableaux presentes en annexe permettent de rendre l’analyse contrastive plus concise. a) Portrait physique et psychologique. Le premier chapitre comporte un portrait des quatre soeurs ; il est frappant de constater que c’est le portrait de Jo qui a ete le plus diversement traduit. The Gregorian Chant! Les divergences apparaissent notamment dans la traduction des nombreux adjectifs qui permettent aux lectrices de se representer l’heroine (tableau 1). To Elizabeth! Les traducteurs francais tentent souvent d’attenuer ce qui dans l’apparence physique de l’heroine peut leur sembler outre ou disgracieux, en se conformant a leurs propres canons de la beaute feminine. The Gregorian Chant! Ainsi le comical nose devient « retrousse » ou « petit », la bouche ( decided ) est « bien dessinee ». Nike Inc And Sweatshops Essay! Ces retouches, particulierement evidentes dans les versions derivees de l’adaptation de 1880, se retrouvent encore dans les plus recentes. The Gregorian Chant! Ainsi, dans CP (1995), Jo est « tres elancee ». Why Did Adolf Hitler! L’hesitation entre « mince » et « maigre » est egalement revelatrice.

Les ajouts de l’adaptation de N (1988) soulignent la difference de Jo en la comparant a son ainee Meg, explicitant ainsi ce qui n’est qu’esquisse dans le texte source [19] : la seconde est « nerveuse » et ses mains sont « quelque peu masculines ». Chant! Il est a noter que les portraits sont omis dans l’adaptation de C. A propos de l’adjectif tall , le premier evaluatif applique a Jo, il convient de remarquer que le meme adjectif est utilise par Alcott pour decrire Madame March lors de sa premiere apparition ( a tall, motherly lady , LW : 9). Nike Inc And! Dans la suite du texte (chapitre 8), on chant apprendra que cette ressemblance physique se double d’une ressemblance morale, car Jo a herite du temperament impetueux de sa mere. The Main In The Giver! Or, cet indice important a ete gomme dans quatre des six traductions analysees. Generalement decrits dans les phrases introductives du discours rapporte, le ton de voix, les expressions et la gestuelle de Jo ont ete dans une proportion importante effaces des traductions. The Gregorian Chant! Alcott fait un grand usage de ces segments textuels, que Gerald Prince appelle de facon eclairante le « discours attributif » (Prince 1978), caracterisant la voix, l’etat d’esprit du personnage, sa relation aux autres. Ostomy Teaching! La repetition de certains adverbes ou syntagmes prepositionnels en association avec la prise de parole de tel ou tel personnage a pour effet de fixer ses traits de caractere.

Ainsi, dans le cas de Meg : kindly, soothingly, graciously, with her sweet voice, mais aussi : with a complaining tone , petulantly , bitterly . The Gregorian! Les traductions effacent souvent ces termes au profit d’incises neutres, ou les modifient. Ostomy Teaching! Ces amputations et distorsions s’appliquent a l’ensemble des protagonistes, et on chant ne peut dire que le personnage de Jo ait subi un traitement particulier a cet egard. Proposes To Elizabeth! Il n’en demeure pas moins que les modalisateurs de la parole de Jo – briskly , impetuously, sharply, impatiently, fiercely – n’apparaissent que sporadiquement dans les textes francais. Au chapitre 2, dans la scene du matin de Noel ou les quatre soeurs decouvrent un exemplaire du Pilgrim’s Progress , l’instance narratoriale decrit Jo lisant, with the the gregorian quiet expression so seldom seen on dalton atomic theory her restless face (LW : 16). The Gregorian Chant! Seule la traduction de FJ (27) a traduit restless (visage mobile). Why Did Adolf Hitler! La gestuelle du « garcon de la famille » ou du « fils Jo » est egalement l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction francaise. Chant! Exemple caracteristique, dans le chapitre premier ou Amy reproche a sa soeur d’utiliser des termes argotiques, la phrase introductive du discours rapporte se lit : observed Amy, with a reproving look at ostomy teaching the long figure stretched on chant the rug (LW : 3).

Dans les quatre traductions qui ont conserve le dernier segment, on adolf hitler jews hesite entre l’elegant : une « longue silhouette etendue sur le tapis » (C : 9), la pointe de reproche : « longue silhouette etendue de tout son long… » (CP : 7), « grand corps etendu… » (GP : 11) et la nette reprobation, endossant ainsi le point de vue d’Amy : « a son ainee, toujours vautree sur le tapis » (FJ : 12) Un peu plus haut, l’une des paroles de Jo est suivie de l’indication : cried Jo, examining the the gregorian heels of ostomy teaching her shoes in the gregorian a gentlemanly manner (LW : 2). Darcy Proposes Analysis! Seules les deux traductions recentes l’ont prise en compte et rendue par « male assurance » (FJ :10) et « aplomb tout masculin » (CP : 6). Chant! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies. Proposes Analysis! En voici un dernier des plus probants : au chapitre 3, l’heroine rajuste sa toilette avant de faire son entree a son premier bal. Chant! La phrase introductive d’Alcott se lit : returned Jo, giving her collar a twitch, and why did hate jews her head a hasty brush (LW : 34). The Gregorian! Les traductions attenuent generalement la brusquerie des gestes de Jo, que l’on doit imaginer, « mettant sa collerette droite et donnant un dernier regard a sa coiffure » (H : 23-24 et C : 26), « donnant un coup de pouce a son col et un coup de brosse a ses cheveux » (GP : 36).

Seules les deux traductions recentes restituent cet aspect de la presence physique de l’heroine : « tirant sur son col d’un coup sec et rectifiant sa coiffure a la va-vite » (CP : 39), « qui passa vaguement la main sur son chignon et rajusta son col d’une pichenette » (FJ : 48). Le chapitre 20 comporte des notations decrivant precisement la gestuelle de Jo, qui ont ete soit gommees soit attenuees dans la traduction, comme le montrent les deux exemples qui suivent. Why Did Adolf Hitler! L’adolescente a une conversation orageuse avec sa mere a propos des amours naissantes de son ainee. The Gregorian! Dans le feu de la conversation, elle joue avec ses cheveux, objet semiotique particulierement important dans le texte ; en effet, le chapitre 1 les decrit comme sa seule beaute ( her one beauty , LW : 5) et elle vient de les sacrifier pour apporter une aide financiere a son pere malade (chapitre 15). Polyurethane! L’indignation de Jo s’exprime dans la facon dont elle tire sur ses cheveux : And Jo pulled her hair again with a wrathful tweak (LW : 261).

La colere, trait constitutif du caractere de Jo, comme nous le verrons plus loin, a ete attenuee dans certaines traductions (tableau 2). The Gregorian! Une seulement (GP) traduit : « avec fureur », deux preferent le desespoir (H et C), deux l’adverbe « rageusement », dont le contenu semantique est nettement affaibli dans les emplois modernes et souvent associe aux manifestations enfantines. Solvent! Le geste meme de tirer est corrige dans certaines traductions : « se passer la main dans les cheveux » (H et C), « fourrager » (GP) et le diminutif « tortiller » (CP). The Gregorian Chant! Chez H et C, la gestuelle est transposee a l’expression du visage. Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth! Plus loin, le mouvement de Jo se levant est compare a celui d’un pantin ( said Jo, unfolding herself, like an the gregorian animated puzzle , LW : 264) ; l’image percue comme peu feminine est gommee dans les versions francaises a l’exception des deux traductions recentes. Le registre linguistique de Jo est stigmatise des le premier chapitre.

Au fil du texte, sa mere et ses soeurs citent ses ecarts de langage, entre guillemets. Nike! Bien que la liberte verbale soit, avec le temperament impetueux, l’un des traits constitutifs de l’etiquette du personnage [20], les traductions ont souvent renonce a traduire son juron prefere, Christopher Colombus [21] ! (chapitres 12 et 17). The Gregorian Chant! C le tempere d’un « Priez pour nous ! » (75). Dalton! Curieusement, les traductions recentes proposent des equivalents : « Nom d’un petit bonhomme » (FJ : 203), « Sacre nom d’un pipe » (CP : 172), « Bon sang de bonsoir » (N : 94), traductions d’un ciblisme tres hexagonal sur la justesse desquelles on the gregorian chant pourrait s’interroger. Pour le portrait psychologique de Jo, nous nous attarderons sur les traductions du chapitre 8 : Jo meets Apollyon, ou l’adolescente fait l’experience des consequences desastreuses de sa colere. In The! Il faut rappeler que Little Women consacre un chapitre particulier a chacune des soeurs March et que celui qui est consacre a Jo est particulierement dramatique. The Gregorian Chant! Or, ce chapitre donne lieu a des ecarts notables dans les traductions.

Rappelons brievement les evenements. Ostomy Teaching! Amy, furieuse que ses ainees ne l’aient pas emmenee au theatre et particulierement ulceree par les rebuffades de Jo, brule le cahier ou celle-ci avait soigneusement recopie des contes de fee qu’elle esperait voir publies un jour. Chant! Le lendemain, Jo, toujours en colere, omet de mettre Amy en garde contre les dangers de la glace trop mince et sa jeune soeur manque de se noyer. Nike Inc And Sweatshops Essay! Le chapitre est d’autant plus central que la perte du cahier touche aux ambitions les plus profondes de l’heroine. The Gregorian Chant! Il peut se diviser en trois sequences : la colere de Jo en decouvrant la calamite ; l’accident d’Amy ; la conversation au cours de laquelle Madame March avoue a sa seconde fille ses propres faiblesses.

Le titre du chapitre, reference au Pilgrim’s Progress , a ete sensiblement modifie dans trois des traductions : « Double choc » (H et C), « Ou Jo se met en colere » (N) ou explicite « Jo rencontre le demon Apollyon » (GP et FJ). Atomic Theory! Le traducteur de G.P. The Gregorian Chant! fait oeuvre didactique en glosant her bosom enemy (LW : 96) : « son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin » (GP : 75). Le caractere, les reactions, les motivations de Jo apparaissent sensiblement differentes selon les traductions. Polyurethane Solvent! La troisieme partie varie beaucoup en importance. The Gregorian Chant! Completement effacee chez C et N, elle est condensee tres allusivement dans la formule : « tout le monde a ses faiblesses » chez GP. Hitler Hate Jews! H resume, mais conserve l’essentiel des confidences de la mere en deux paragraphes. Chant! Seuls F et C donnent le texte au complet, y compris l’aveu de madame March au sujet des sacrifices qu’elle a du consentir pour sa patrie.

L’existence d’un modele maternel fort, voire heroique – personnage dont la charge positive se communique a l’heroine qui lui ressemble – est donc gommee dans la plupart des textes francais actuellement offerts aux jeunes lectrices. Dans la premiere partie, la violente reaction de Jo a l’egard d’Amy est diversement traduite, et souvent temperee, comme le montrent les extraits compares (tableau 3). Darcy! Il faut cependant noter qu’il y a moins de suppressions, dans ce chapitre dont les traducteurs ont reconnu l’importance, que dans le reste du roman. The Gregorian Chant! Le tableau permet par ailleurs d’observer la parente de H et de C derives de Stahl. Atomic Theory! La traduction de H est la plus edulcoree : Amy, secouee, perd la respiration et Jo s’en va « cacher » son chagrin. Chant! Le geste final, le parting box , semble poser probleme a certains traducteurs. Who Is The Main Character Giver! Supprime chez Hachette, il reapparait sous forme de « tape » dans le texte de Casterman. Chant! Remi Simon (N) a arrete le bras de Jo. Dalton Atomic! Ailleurs, on the gregorian parle de gifle, maitresse meme (GP) ou de taloche. Analysis! Curieusement, aucun des traducteurs et traductrices n’a juge utile de faire mention de l’oreille d’Amy.

On notera aussi qu’une seule traduction (FJ) mentionne la nature violente ( hot temper ) de l’heroine. Des traductions minimisent egalement la profondeur du desespoir de Jo, quand elle voit son oeuvre litteraire detruite. Chant! Les ambitions personnelles du personnage sont nettement restreintes chez Hachette ou il s’agit de venir en aide a sa mere : « reve innocent ». Proposes To Elizabeth! Casterman rencherit avec la mention d’un journal pour bebes ! Plus loin dans le chapitre, quelques ajouts des traductions tendent a ennoblir le personnage de Jo. The Gregorian Chant! Dans l’adaptation de Stahl, Meg dit a Amy que Jo « est peut-etre la meilleure de nous toutes » (H : 62 ; C : 57). Who Is The Main Character Giver! Remi Simon ajoute qu’elle n’est pas rancuniere (N : 79).

La scene centrale de l’accident sur la riviere gelee et le role de Jo donnent egalement lieu a des distorsions (tableau 4). The Gregorian! Seules les deux traductions recentes osent plonger dans les mauvais sentiments de l’heroine. Why Did! Les paroles du petit demon sont diversement interpretees. Chant! La traduction de Casterman deculpabilise l’heroine. Solvent! Remi Simon (N) evacue l’idee du demon, et traduit dans un registre familier sa voix qu’il prete a l’heroine. The Gregorian! Dans l’ensemble, les traductions en disent plus sur les bons sentiments de Jo que l’original. Polyurethane Solvent! Strange feeling est traduit par « inquietude » par G.P. Chant! et Nathan. Inc And Essay! Casterman precise : « inquiete sans vouloir le paraitre » et ajoute « son bon coeur l’emportant », « se retourna vivement pour avertir Amy ». The Gregorian! Ces extraits suffiront a montrer que la traduction resiste dans l’ensemble a exprimer la violence des sentiments de Jo.

Viennent completer le portrait de l’adolescente anti-conformiste les appreciations de son entourage : ses parents, ses soeurs, l’acariatre tante March, les voisins amis – M. Ostomy Teaching! Laurence et son petit-fils Laurie ; ces jugements sont vehicules par la voix narratoriale ou par les personnages eux-memes. The Gregorian Chant! Au chapitre 2, les soeurs qui vont porter leur dejeuner de Noel a une famille dans la misere sont comparees a des anges par l’heureuse beneficiaire. Nike Inc And Sweatshops! La voix narratoriale commente que le compliment fait particulierement plaisir a Jo qui s’est fait traiter de diable depuis sa naissance. The Gregorian Chant! Voila un point ou les traductions different. Polyurethane! Deux des traductions (GP, N) ont supprime cette remarque, deux autres (H : 18, C : 19) l’adoucissent : « mais surtout Jo qui avait merite maintes fois (souvent recu C) dans son enfance le sobriquet de “petit diable” ». The Gregorian Chant! Jo a su s’attirer l’affection de tante March qui l’a engagee comme dame de compagnie : Something in who is the main character in the giver her comical face and the gregorian chant blunt manners struck the dalton old lady’s fancy (LW : 47). The Gregorian Chant! L’adjectif se revele encore une fois l’un des points nevralgiques de la traduction du personnage de Jo : le syntagme comical face derange autant que le comical nose du chapitre 1. To Elizabeth! Meme dans les traductions recentes, il est adouci par les hypocoristiques « frimousse » (FJ) ou « minois » (CP). Chant! P.-J. Ostomy Teaching! Stahl (H) avait resume les deux caracteristiques par « originalite ». The Gregorian Chant! Remi Simon (N) a rendu comical face par « visage franc ». Proposes Analysis! Le chapitre est supprime chez Casterman. Chant! La traduction de G.P. The Main In The! est comme dans bien des cas la plus litterale (tableau 5).

Les manieres originales de Jo plaisent aussi a leur voisin Laurie des la premiere rencontre, manieres que les traductions ont hesite a qualifier : Jo’s gentlemanly demeanour (LW : 37) est omis par H et N, C (29) traduit « son air gentleman », les autres optent pour les manieres garconnieres (GP : 38, FJ : 53) ou l’attitude garconne (CP : 43). The Gregorian! Enfin l’un des jugements les plus significatifs portes sur Jo est celui d’une jeune Anglaise visitant l’Amerique (chapitre 12). Ostomy Teaching! Le passage vaut d’etre examine en detail (tableau 6). The Gregorian Chant! Il est curieux qu’aucune des traductions n’hesite a qualifier Jo de bizarre ou d’etrange par le truchement de la Britannique Miss Kate, mais que certaines hesitent a lui accorder de l’intelligence, la preferant « sympathique » (G.P.) ou instruite (C). Essay! Les exemples pourraient etre multiplies, mais nous esperons avoir montre que la caractere audacieux et extreme du personnage a ete estompe, et que l’energie extraordinaire de la queer girl ne passe pas toujours en traduction. L’expression de la volonte de Jo est un aspect que les traductions se revelent recalcitrantes a transmettre. Chant! Jo entend dire ce qu’elle pense ( good, strong words, LW : 45), deteste attendre, veut agir sur les choses et se soucie peu du qu’en-dira-t-on. The Main Character! Elle exprime son desir de liberte en toute occasion.

Bien que cela ait ete respecte, globalement, dans les traductions francaises, certains reves de Jo ont semble choquer. Chant! Au chapitre 14, apres une bonne course avec son ami Laurie, qui lui vaut la reprobation de Meg, l’adolescente s’exclame : « I wish I was a horse ; then I could run for dalton, miles in the gregorian chant this splendid air, and polyurethane solvent not lose my breath. The Gregorian! It was capital, but see what a guy it’s made me… » (LW :198). Proposes To Elizabeth! La tenue vestimentaire de Jo a en effet souffert de l’exercice, et elle a perdu toutes ses epingles a cheveux. The Gregorian Chant! L’allusion au cheval a ete gommee par GP et N. Ostomy Teaching! Chez H (105) et C (88), a la suite de Stahl, on the gregorian choisit un animal plus associe a la feminite : « Je voudrais etre une gazelle, ou un cheval… », « Ou meme un cheval », concede C, plus fidele au modele (S : XXXII, 61). Les ambitions litteraires de Jo, composante essentielle du systeme de valeurs mis en place par le roman, sont souvent minimisees dans les traductions.

Cette censure, dont nous avons deja touche un mot au sujet du chapitre 8, s’observe encore au chapitre 14. Atomic Theory! Quand Jo avoue a Laurie qu’elle a soumis deux textes a un journal, le texte de H (102) et de C (85) suivant Stahl, se lit : « j’ai donne deux histoires de ma facon au directeur du Journal des Enfants ». The Gregorian Chant! La fin du chapitre a subi d’importantes distorsions. Dalton! Quatre des traductions resument considerablement la fin de l’episode. The Gregorian! La reaction de fierte de Madame March devant le succes de sa fille est escamotee chez H et N qui arretent le chapitre aux exclamations de joie des soeurs. Nike Inc And Sweatshops Essay! Le passage est supprime chez GP egalement. Chant! Chez C (91), Madame March « ne se montra pas mecontente », car « l’histoire etait gentille et convenable ; elle faisait honneur aux sentiments moraux de l’auteur » (S : XXXII, 61). Giver! Les dernieres lignes du chapitre : « For to the gregorian, be independent, and polyurethane solvent earn the chant praise of why did adolf hitler jews those she loved, were the chant dearest wishes of Inc and Essay her heart […] » (LW : 203), si importantes pour la comprehension globale du texte, n’apparaissent pas chez H, N, C. Chant! Chez GP, la fierte devient de l’approbation.

Encore une fois, seules les deux traductions recentes traduisent « faire honneur » (FJ : 254) et « faire la fierte » (CP : 215). Why Did Adolf Hitler Hate Jews! Il est curieux aussi que la fin de la phrase precedente ou Jo explique qu’elle aimerait aider ses soeurs ( support myself and the gregorian help the Sweatshops Essay girls , LW : 203) est traduite par une generalisation – « aider les autres » (GP :131), « aider les miens » (CP : 215) – dans deux des traductions qui l’ont conservee. The Gregorian! On peut faire un rapprochement avec les propos d’Amy au chapitre 15 : la plus jeune soeur, qui reve d’une carriere artistique, assure que dans dix ans Jo et elle auront fait la fortune de la famille. Inc And! Cette phrase a ete supprimee dans quatre des traductions (H, GP, C, N). The Gregorian Chant! Il semble que, tout autant que la personnalite affirmee de Jo, ses ambitions professionnelles heurtent en traduction ! Le reve de liberte et d’independance s’exprime aussi quand Laurie, fache contre son grand-pere, propose a Jo de partir avec lui pour Washington (chapitre 21).

Dans le texte d’Alcott, l’heroine est fortement tentee par l’aventure et se bouche meme les oreilles pour ne pas entendre la suite des projets seduisants. Hitler! GP occulte completement ce moment de reverie de Jo, qui propose tout de suite a Laurie de l’aider a se reconcilier avec son grand-pere. Chant! H (162) donne l’essentiel du passage et explicite meme she was tired of solvent care and the gregorian confinement (LW : 273) par « elle etait fatiguee de sa reclusion aupres de Beth ». Who Is The Main Character In The! Reprenant exactement son modele (S : XXXII, 283), C (163) rend compte de la tentation de Jo, mais moralise par des ajouts : « l’etourdie », « ses yeux tomberent heureusement [sur sa maison] », « ce fou de Laurie », etc. Chant! N (167) resume en quatre lignes, concluant avec autorite : « son bon sens naturel reprit le dessus ». Atomic Theory! Encore une fois, les deux traductions recentes sont plus fideles. Les lamentations de Jo sur les restrictions imposees a la condition feminine (chapitres 1, 3, 5, 10, 16, 20, 21) ont ete traduites dans l’ensemble du texte sans trop d’amplification ni d’attenuation. The Gregorian! Toutefois, dans cette scene du chapitre 21, les differences dans les traductions francaises signalent un point nevralgique. Nike Sweatshops Essay! L’emphase de H et surtout de C contraste avec le detachement de N, alors que GP, comme on chant l’a vu, n’a pas juge bon de s’appesantir sur la tentation de Jo (tableau 7). Que devient l’heroine contestataire a la fin du roman ? Plusieurs reponses sont donnees selon les points de vue narratifs. Ostomy Teaching! Jo elle-meme s’avoue tres mecontente et ne fait que se resigner aux fiancailles de Meg qui rejouissent toute la famille. The Gregorian! Elle sent qu’elle n’a aucune prise sur les cadres sociaux. Proposes To Elizabeth! Le parcours de l’adolescente au cours de l’annee delimitee par les deux fetes de Noel est decrit par monsieur March a son retour.

Il dit ne plus reconnaitre le « fils Jo » qu’il a laisse l’annee precedente. The Gregorian Chant! Les transformations qu’il note concernent la tenue vestimentaire, le langage, les gestes, la voix, le developpement du sentiment maternel. Ostomy Teaching! La traduction de la fin de son discours presente quelques ecarts (tableau 8). Our black sheep , la metaphore paternelle est on the gregorian chant ne peut plus claire. Proposes! L’image a ete supprimee dans trois traductions (H, C, N). Chant! « Tete ronde » de H et C renvoie allusivement au sacrifice des cheveux au chapitre 15.

S’il enonce quelque regret, Monsieur March se felicite de voir sa fille entrer dans le rang. Solvent! Les traductions francaises n’ont ni force la note, ni attenue la portee du discours. The Gregorian! L’adaptation de Remi Simon (N : 177) ajoute cependant, au nombre des progres de Jo : « et dont les recits sont publies dans les journaux ! ». Hitler! Observons aussi la facon dont les traductions ont rendu les trois adjectifs strong, helpful, tender-hearted ( woman ) qu’il oppose a wild (girl) . Chant! Stahl (repris par C) avait opte pour quatre adjectifs « tendre, devouee, forte encore, mais civilisee ». Darcy To Elizabeth! H omet l’idee de force, tandis que l’adaptation de Simon la conserve. The Gregorian! Dans les deux traductions recentes, proches l’une de l’autre, on polyurethane a prefere le courage. The Gregorian! Il faut noter par ailleurs que la traduction « brebis galeuse » de FJ et CP est nettement plus pejorative que « mouton noir ». L’adaptation de P.-J.

Stahl, encore tres diffusee par l’intermediaire d’Hachette (Ideal-Bibliotheque et Bibliotheque verte) et de Casterman, prend beaucoup de libertes avec la fin de l’histoire [22]. Ostomy Teaching! H ajoute un chapitre « Perspectives d’avenir » qui a fonction d’epilogue. Chant! La lectrice y apprend que Jo « renoncant a ecrire toutes les histoires qui lui passaient par la tete, s’adonna avec ardeur a la confection du trousseau de sa soeur » (H : 184) ! C (185-187) ajoute au dernier chapitre des details touchants, comme ce geste de Beth montant sur les genoux du fiance de Meg, Monsieur Brooke, pour lui demander a l’oreille s’il rendra sa soeur heureuse. Who Is The Main Character In The Giver! Monsieur March annonce que Meg se mariera dans deux ans, ce qui lui permettra de perfectionner son education : « Cela vous donnera aussi, Jo, l’occasion de completer la votre ». The Gregorian Chant! En quel sens ? peut-on se demander. Nike Sweatshops Essay! Et l’adaptateur conclut : « Monsieur March avait appris a Jo tout ce qu’il y avait a apprendre ». The Gregorian! Enfin, la resistance de Jo au mariage de sa soeur a completement disparu grace a ses « sages reflexions », comme elle l’explique a Laurie. Solvent! Mais P.-J. The Gregorian Chant! Stahl allait plus loin encore en mariant Jo a Laurie. Ostomy Teaching! Fort curieusement, l’adaptation toute recente de Chantal Baligand reintroduit cette fin improbable et en totale contradiction avec le second tome. Chant! Elle reprend en effet, en l’abregeant, l’epilogue « Quatre ans apres » de 1880, ou le jeune dandy Laurie devenait fermier pour l’amour de Jo, avec la benediction de son grand-pere (Baligand 2002 : 153-156).

Ainsi, le denouement matrimonial – par une union que Louisa May Alcott s’etait toujours refuse a faire, en depit des prieres de ses lectrices [23] – est-il reactive a l’aube du xxi e siecle ! La seconde fille du « docteur » March, pale reflet de l’heroine d’Alcott ? Il serait a peine exagere de dire que des textes bien differents circulent actuellement sous le titre des Quatre filles du docteur March . Polyurethane Solvent! Sur les six adaptations et traductions que nous avons analysees en detail, quatre presentent des distorsions marquees par rapport a l’original. The Gregorian Chant! L’amputation de chapitres (de trois a cinq), la suppression de passages complets ou d’elements significatifs des phrases y a pour pendant des gloses interpretatives, particulierement dans l’adaptation anonyme de Casterman, la plus fidele a Stahl. Dalton Theory! Nous avons observe en particulier de quelle facon le « discours attributif » des paroles des personnages etait souvent prive des notations sur le ton, l’expression ou le geste. Chant! En outre, nous avons eu la surprise de decouvrir que, parmi les versions les plus recemment editees, se trouvaient aussi bien des traductions soucieuses de transmettre le sens global de l’oeuvre que des adaptations qui la denaturaient. Cette etude des representations de la feminite en traduction francaise, que nous avons centree sur le personnage de Jo, l’adolescente eprise d’action et d’independance, fait apparaitre – meme dans les traductions recentes, sous certains aspects – une edulcoration de l’heroine. Solvent! Les traits physiques, la parole, les actions et les ambitions ont subi d’importantes retouches dans les versions francaises, qu’il s’agisse des adaptations, mais aussi des traductions. The Gregorian Chant! Les soeurs March continuent de fasciner les lectrices francophones, car il reste toujours quelque chose des grandes oeuvres, meme dans les adaptations les plus desinvoltes ! Mais on character peut deplorer que le premier contact avec ces heroines americaines du xix e siecle soit bien souvent fausse et appauvri, selon l’edition qui leur sera accessible en bibliotheque ou en librairie.

[1] L’enquete, effectuee a partir des ressources disponibles a Montreal, nous parait toutefois representative de la diffusion actuelle des traductions francaises de Little Women . The Gregorian Chant! Il est a noter qu’aucune traduction n’a ete publiee a ce jour en Amerique francophone ; une telle entreprise presenterait de l’interet en raison des liens etroits entre la culture source et la culture cible. Proposes Analysis! [2] « Mr. The Gregorian! N. To Elizabeth! [Niles] wants a girls’story , and chant I begin “Little Women”. Nike! Marmee, Anna, and the gregorian chant May all approve my plan. Who Is The Main Character Giver! So I plod away, though I don’t enjoy this sort of the gregorian chant thing. Atomic Theory! Never liked girls or knew many, except my sisters, but our queer plays and the gregorian chant experiences may prove interesting, though I doubt it. Ostomy Teaching! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 165-166) Sur les « vocations » d’ecrivains pour la jeunesse suscitees par les editeurs, voir par exemple Shavit 1986 : 33-57 ; Grenier 1993. The Gregorian Chant! [3] Pour juillet-aout 1876, elle note dans son journal : « Get an proposes to elizabeth analysis idea and chant start “Rose in polyurethane Bloom”, though I hate sequels. The Gregorian! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 201) [4] L’entree de son journal pour les mois de juin a aout 1875 fait etat de 92 visiteurs : « Fame is an dalton atomic expensive luxury. The Gregorian! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 196) [5] « Particularly when studied within its critical and ostomy teaching cultural contexts, Little Women emerges as a substantial, multidimensional literary text. Chant! » (Eiselein et Phillips 2001 : 182) [6] « Indeed, one can guess that with the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis passage of chant time, when a new domestic culture is proposes to elizabeth analysis sufficiently established not to the gregorian chant, be embarrassed by adolf hitler hate, reminders of the the gregorian past, youngsters no less than adults will return to polyurethane solvent, it with fresh enthusiasm as a charming and chant authentic record of Nike Essay New England life in the gregorian the Civil War period.. Ostomy Teaching! […] For the the gregorian contemporay reader, what is in the perhaps most striking about the gregorian Little Women , even more archaic that its social scene, is why did adolf hate its overt moral emphasis. The Gregorian! » (Alcott 1948 : couverture arriere) [7] Pour la derniere decennie, outre les traductions selectionnees pour cette etude, il faut mentionner : une « traduction nouvelle » d’Anne Joba avec dossier de Nicole Bon aux editions France loisirs, Paris, 1992 ; une « adaptation abregee » anonyme aux Editions du Tournesol, Limay, 1994 ; une traduction anonyme avec dossier de Francoise Gomez chez Pocket Junior, Paris, 1995 ; un abrege de Marie Page aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1995 ; une traduction d’Anne Joba et France-Marie Watkins aux editions Hachette, 1995 ; une traduction anonyme aux Editions de la Fontaine au roy, « Arpege Junior », 1996 ; une adaptation d’Evelyne Hiest-Lallemand aux editions Lito, Champigny-sur-Marne, 1997 ; une adaptation de Chantal Baligand pour les editions Hemma, Chevron, 2002. Hitler Hate! [8] Madame Remy (1872) : Petites femmes , Lausanne, H. The Gregorian Chant! Mignot, « traduit librement de l’anglais avec l’autorisation de l’auteur » ; Madame Remy (1878) : Dictees sur l’orthographe usuelle, les participes et les principales difficultes de la grammaire , Paris, A. Ostomy Teaching! Pigoreau (3 e edition). The Gregorian! [9] « I think it was so splendid in Inc and father to the gregorian chant, go as a chaplain when he was too old to to elizabeth, be drafted, and the gregorian not strong enough to Nike Sweatshops Essay, be a soldier, said Meg warmly. The Gregorian Chant! » (Alcott 1948 : 10) Traduction de P.-J. The Main Character In The! Stahl : « Comme c’est beau a papa d’etre parti a l’armee comme medecin, puisqu’il a passe l’age et qu’il n’aurait plus la force d’etre soldat ! dit Meg avec enthousiasme. The Gregorian! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 30) [10] P.-J. Who Is The Main! Stahl ajoute au titre une note ou il s’explique sur son travail d’adaptation : « Cet ouvrage se compose de deux gros volumes dans le texte americain. The Gregorian Chant! Je n’ai connu que le premier, par une traduction litterale de M. Sweatshops! Lermont.

Le second, me dit-on, n’eut pas ete possible pour nous. The Gregorian! Mais la donnee generale de l’oeuvre m’a paru si interessante que j’ai cru bon de faire pour elle le travail d’adaptation que j’avais fait precedemment pour les Patins d’argent . Theory! N’ayant eu a ma disposition que la premiere moitie de l’ouvrage, j’ai du, en bien des points, le modifier, l’arranger, pour le conduire a un denouement qui ne pouvait etre celui de l’auteur, puisque je l’ignorais. Chant! Le livre, tel qu’il etait, n’aurait pu, je le crains, reussir en France ; mais la physionomie des caracteres des quatre soeurs meritait d’etre conservee dans ses lignes principales. Solvent! J’ai cru pouvoir en faire une lecture agreable et profitable pour nos jeunes lecteurs, et je ne regretterai pas mes efforts si j’y suis parvenu. The Gregorian Chant! » (Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 24) [11] Reeditions successives : 1923, 1934, 1952 pour la « Bibliotheque Verte » et 1950 pour « Ideal-Bibliotheque ». Solvent! [12] Petites Americaines , Mme Tissier de Mallerais, Hachette, 1935, Meilleurs romans etrangers ; Little Women . The Gregorian Chant! Les Quatre soeurs Marsch (sic) , Henriette Rouillard, Paris, Delagrave, 1936 ; Les Filles du Dr. In The! March . Chant! Traduction nouvelle de Madame H. Theory! Giraud.

Paris, Pre-aux-Clercs, 1945. The Gregorian Chant! Les Quatre soeurs March , Germaine Lalande, Paris, Hazan, 1946. Nike Inc And! [13] La premiere edition, parue sous le titre Petites bonnes femmes, les quatre filles du docteur March , portait la mention « Adaptation de R. Chant! et A. Dalton Theory! Prophetie » (Paris, G.P., « Bibliotheque Rouge et or », 34). The Gregorian Chant! [14] Exemple, au chapitre 8, « mais son ennemi interieur, son Apollyon, comme le vieux Bunyan l’appelle dans le voyage du Pelerin, etait toujours pret a la faire s’irriter, et a vaincre sa resolution » (75) traduisant « but her bosom enemy was always ready to Nike Inc and Sweatshops Essay, flame up and the gregorian chant defeat her » (Alcott 1948 : 96). Ostomy Teaching! [15] « Madame March, mal portante, ne pouvait les accompagner, mais elle les avait dans la journee recommandees aux soins d’une de ses amies, qu’elles devaient retrouver au bal. The Gregorian! » (Alcott 1993 : 25 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 89) [16] Jo plaide aupres de sa mere : « – Il est malade, avait-elle dit, et tres change, chez les Gardiner, il m’avait presque fait l’effet d’un petit jeune monsieur, mais je vois bien que ce n’est encore qu’un petit garcon. Inc And! » (Alcott 1993 : 37 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 153) [17] On y lit par exemple qu’« un Americain rougirait de penser a la dot de sa fiancee et [que], s’il lui arrivait de s’en inquieter et de s’en enquerir publiquement, il ne trouverait plus une fille honorable qui consentit a porter son nom ». The Gregorian Chant! Et la visiteuse britannique, admirative de tant de vertu, s’exclamerait : « Dieu veuille qu’en vieillissant l’Amerique ne perde pas ces sages principes. Darcy! » (Alcott 1993 : 78-79 ; Stahl 1880 : XXXI, 377) [18] Monsieur Laurence appelle Laurie, age de seize ans, un « marmot » (Alcott 1993 : 168). The Gregorian! [19] Ajout de l’adaptateur : « Il y avait evidemment un air de ressemblance entre elle et Margaret, mais Jo etait tres differente d’aspect. Solvent! » (Alcott 1988b : 9) [20] Voir, au chapitre 4, sa reponse au reproche de Meg, « Don’t use such dreadful expressions » : « I like good, strong words that mean something. The Gregorian Chant! » (Alcott 1948 : 45) [21] Il faut en outre noter que le choix de cette exclamation n’est peut-etre pas fortuit, Louisa May Alcott etant nee un Colombus Day, le 29 novembre 1932 ! [22] Dans un paragraphe tenant lieu de postface, P.J. Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth! Stahl assure que « pas plus qu’un etre humain un livre ne voyage impunement » et qu’il faut se resigner a « sacrifier quelque chose aux gouts et aux moeurs » du pays qui adopte le livre (Stahl 1880 : XXXII, 344). The Gregorian Chant! [23] Cf. Ostomy Teaching! l’entree de son journal pour le 1 er novembre 1968 : « Girls write to the gregorian, ask who the who is little women marry, as if that was the chant only end and polyurethane aim of the gregorian chant a woman’s life. Jews! I won’t marry Jo to the gregorian, Laurie to to elizabeth analysis, please any one. Chant! » (Myerson Shealy 1989 : 167) PhD, is polyurethane professor in the gregorian chant the Department of proposes to elizabeth French Studies, Concordia University, Montreal. Chant! Her main research interests include medieval studies and who is the main character giver children’s literature.

She has published numerous articles on chant the novel and darcy to elizabeth theater for the gregorian, the young, and darcy proposes to elizabeth is currently doing research on the gregorian chant the translation of darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis children’s literature from the gregorian English into ostomy teaching French. Chant! She also has research projects, such as “Socio-aesthetics of the ostomy teaching novel for chant, young people in Inc and Essay Quebec,” funded by the gregorian chant, the Social Sciences and dalton theory Humanities Research Council of the gregorian chant Canada, and proposes “Children’s literature: a hermeneutic approach,” a team-project funded by chant, the Fond de recherche sur la societe et la culture (Quebec). a) Textes ayant servi de base a l’analyse comparative. Narratology meets Translation Studies, or, The Voice of the why did hitler hate Translator in chant Children’s Literature. Par Emer O’Sullivan. When Children’s Literature Transcends its Genre : Translating Alice in solvent Wonderland. Par Douglas Kibbee. When Modern Little Red Riding Hoods Cross Borders… or Don’t… Par Sandra Beckett.

The Translation of the gregorian chant Culture-Bound Elements into dalton Finnish in the gregorian the Post-War Period.

Buy Essay Papers Online - Gregorian Chant - "Dies Irae" - YouTube

Nov 17, 2017 The gregorian chant,

Essay Writer for All Kinds of Papers - Illumination - Peaceful Gregorian Chants - Dan Gibson s Solitude [Full

The Red Badge of the gregorian chant Courage Essay Questions. What, if anything, does the novel have to say about religion? The novel does not say much explicitly about religion. Crane was raised in a religious household but rebelled against the strict rules and solvent regulations levied by his parents. His work, however, often features biblical imagery and the gregorian allusions. Henry seems to imbue Nature with a spiritual element, writing about the forest appearing as a cathedral and feeling a sense of profound peace and harmony within it. One striking sentence appears after Jim dies: the red sun was pasted in the sky like a wafer (52). Some critics have said this is a reference to the communion wafer, and that Jim Conklin is a Christ-like figure.

His sacrificing of himself in battle is ostomy teaching, being commemorated in the gregorian communion. Jim can be seen as saving Henry because his death facilitates Henry's passage into manhood and morality. What are the genre, style, and tone of the novel? The genre of the novel is realist, or naturalist. Polyurethane? Crane provided realistic detail of warfare and focused on the psychology of one character, allowing the readers to experience the the gregorian sights and sounds through one ordinary soldier's perspective. The prose is simple, the characters relatable. There is little veneer to the scenes of combat - they are visceral and violent. The style is impressionistic and subjective, using images and emotions to convey meaning. The events appear to the reader through the eyes of the why did hitler jews protagonist, not in a highly vivid or precise manner but in the way they seem or feel to him.

The drama is in the thought, not the action. Chant? The tone of the Sweatshops novel is ironic, meaning that the author is expressing his awareness of the the gregorian contradiction between reality and appearance. Crane expresses some irony toward his protagonist, calling into question Henry's assumptions and positing that Henry's ideas about himself might not be at all true. Even the title leads to a moment of ironic comeuppance, as Henry's accidental red badge of courage belies his bravery. How does Crane contrast Wilson and Henry? At the outset of the novel both of the soldiers are new to combat and visibly possess traits that speak to their immaturity.

Wilson is referred to hate, as the loud soldier and chant Henry as the youth. Wilson is boisterous and rather annoying, while Henry is quieter but, as the reader knows, filled with naivete, shallowness, and anxiety. As the novel progresses, Wilson's transformation in battle turns him into a foil for Nike Sweatshops, Henry. The two young men diverge, with Wilson growing more mature and rational and Henry persisting in his callowness and cowardice. Even though the reader does not have access to Wilson's thoughts, it is clear that he has irrevocably changed. He is peaceful and the gregorian wise and does not waste his time bragging.

He breaks up fights among the men and refuses to engage in adolf hate pettiness himself. Henry, however, has fled from the gregorian, battle and lied about the nature of his wound. Dalton? He is still filled with fear and rage and cannot seem to chant, attain that inner calm that Wilson has. While the reader is left absolutely certain that Wilson has grown up, the question of whether Henry truly has still looms at the close of the polyurethane solvent novel. How does Crane use color in the novel? It does not seem possible to find a novel that employs color metaphors as much as Crane's Red Badge of Courage . Indeed, it is too obvious to point out that the title itself uses the color red; red continually evokes the hellish horror of the gregorian war (the red animal) throughout the novel. There are red eyes, red hazes, red monsters. Black is also used to create a sense of fear, as with eerie black silhouettes in the shape of snakes. As Henry's cowardice peaks, yellow light and fog pervade the scene. Some colors are used to suggest peace and placidity, as with the blue of the sky and the calm gold of daylight.

Henry earns his red badge of courage and becomes a color-bearer later in the novel. It is not surprising that Crane used colors so much, for they are part of the novel's intense focus on the senses. Henry, through whom we experience war, experiences a barrage of sounds, sights, and smells. Inc And Essay? Bright colors enhance the sensory experience and create or mirror the protagonist's moods. This visual realism is a main indicator of Crane's role in the naturalist literary movement, as well as an indication of his poetic, impressionistic tendencies. Why does Crane avoid using particulars of time and place?

Although it is clear that the novel takes place during the Civil War - specifically, as admitted by Crane after its publication, the 1863 Battle of Chancellorsville - the novel deliberately avoids use of particulars of time, place, and historical figures. Even the the gregorian context of cause does not enter into the text; Henry's enlisting is motivated by glory and not political feeling. No famous generals are mentioned, nothing of Lincoln or the why did adolf hitler hate jews Union is alluded to, no other battles discussed, no mention of slavery. The Rebels are even described more by the color of their uniforms or in the gregorian chant terms of being indistinct, hazy, savage, or monstrous than as foes with opposing ideals. Ostomy Teaching? The main characters are more often than not referred to by some informal identifier, such as the youth or the tall soldier. Their names are not very important. The Gregorian Chant? Why would Crane do this?

Simply put, he wanted to universalize the war experience. He wanted the story of one ordinary soldier's combat experience to ring true across multiple conflicts, multiple moments in history. He wanted to speak for ostomy teaching, many young soldiers who left their homes and undertook this adventure. The Gregorian? Henry's inner conflict was more important to Crane vis a vis the human struggle than the specific nature of one battle or one war. What is the significance of the four Rebel prisoners of Essay war? At the end of the chant novel the Union troops have captured four prisoners of war.

Through Henry's eyes, Crane describes the soldiers. One is polyurethane, wrathful, one is calm and friendly, one is chant, morose, and one is always silent. These men are significant for two reasons: one, they are real enemy soldiers in the flesh; and two, they are not so different from the Union soldiers. Regarding the first point, this is the to elizabeth analysis first time Henry and his companions have face-to-face contact with the enemy. This is particularly important for chant, Henry, who thus far has dehumanized the enemy by Nike Inc and Sweatshops referring to them as a dragon or monster. He barely conceived of the soldiers he was fighting as individuals, and here he encounters them as real young men doing exactly what he is doing. This leads to the second point, which is that these young men are very similar to the gregorian, the Union soldiers. The loud cursing soldier is reminiscent of the lieutenant, the good-natured soldier sounds like Jim, the morose one sounds like Henry. It is a reminder to Henry (and the ostomy teaching reader) that the enemy are real people, and the gregorian chant that both sides have more in common than they think.

As Crane removes any historical indicators or context from the novel, the significance of Henry's realization of their individuality speaks to proposes to elizabeth, the larger theme of humanity. Why does Crane choose to write the novel in a third-person limited point of view? Third-person limited means that while Henry is not the narrator of the chant novel, it is through his eyes that readers experience the events of the ostomy teaching text. His is the only mind the reader has access to; none of the the gregorian other characters are very real, and are only viewed within the context of Henry's experience. Henry's convoluted and ever-shifting assessments of the world around him complicate an character giver, otherwise straightforward narration. The Gregorian? He is always thinking, rationalizing, debating, fretting, and ruminating. His mind jumps from thought to thought as he tries to process the events unfolding around him and what his own role is. Sometimes his thoughts are confusing and contradictory, much as an solvent, actual human being's thoughts are. This insight into his mind allows readers to really get to know the character, but this perspective poses a problem as well.

If readers are only able to see Henry's thoughts and do not have the benefit of an outside, objective narrator to correct Henry's misconceptions or tell them the truth about the events going on, then the integrity of the the gregorian chant narrator is compromised. The fact is, the reader has to be skeptical about Henry. Adolf Hate? He is self-centered and naive, and cannot be counted on to deliver the absolute truth. This makes the chant novel simultaneously frustrating and compelling. What is Crane saying about a soldier's survival instinct? Henry demonstrates both the ingrained survival instinct in all people, as well as a soldier's sense of darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis duty to act beyond self-interest. Henry, wondering since the beginning if he would flee in battle, finds himself doing just that in the first fight with the the gregorian Rebels. His desire to protect himself is paramount, and, even though Henry is obnoxious, this drive is completely understandable. Wandering around the forest post-flight, he manages to convince himself Nature commends this impulse and that he is actually much smarter than the rest of his companions who could not understand that flight was the natural thing to do. However, Henry also demonstrates that he is hitler hate jews, capable of self-sacrifice. When he takes the flag from the dead color-sergeant, he bears not only his regiment's symbol, but the greater symbol of brotherhood.

Henry's sense of his individuality and the gregorian his desire to preserve his life at all costs fades as he matures and understands that the cause is more important than he previously cared to admit. He must sublimate his individuality into the will of the group to achieve honor, which, to Henry, is more important than life. How is war depicted as a spectacle? Throughout the novel war is depicted as a spectacle to watch and absorb oneself in. Dalton Theory? In the midst of the gregorian chant fighting the soldiers of the regiment are completely entranced by what happens around them, watching, mouths agape, at their friends fighting and character falling, appearing stupid and dazed. Both before and after enlisting, Henry is particularly attracted to war and wants to see battle, which appears alternatively as a celestial battle, a fantastic machine, or a fearsome but compelling monster. In depicting - or in Henry's case, witnessing - war this way, there is a certain level of detachment that clouds out the grim reality of the gregorian chant war. As flag-bearer later in the novel Henry only stands and watches, deeply absorbed as a spectator (108). The soldiers are certainly in awe of what they are seeing around them, but this does not necessarily render them dumb and inert; rather, they are more fully a part of their environment and their experience and dalton atomic feel the chant emotion of the moment more deeply and can thus be driven to act and be a part of the scene. Several critics have noted that Crane seems to be narrating his novel in a theatrical fashion, encouraging his readers to look upon war in a curious fashion. The readers, like Henry, are spectators.

How does Crane use irony in the novel? Crane, young and the main character in the giver brilliant, was a master of irony. The first major example of the gregorian this is the fact that Henry yearns for analysis, his own red badge of courage and Crane gives him one - a blunt, accidental smack to the head with a rifle butt that Henry passes off as a war wound. Henry gets this wound because he deserts the the gregorian battle and has to make his way back to his regiment, getting in Essay the way of an annoyed retreating soldier. A second example of irony is the fact that Henry's fighting prowess in the second day of battle only happens when he is in a stupor, a sleepy and unconscious mental state lacking any element of the gregorian foresight, courage, or mental preparedness. Thirdly, at the end of the second day Henry is still full of character in the delusion and egocentricity; the the gregorian irony is that he does not seem to ever have a grasp on who he really is while he tells himself repeatedly that he is a hero and proposes a man. Crane's tone is ironic throughout, and provides a layer of complexity to the novel.

How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-red-badge-of-courage/study-guide/essay-questions in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Red Badge of Courage The Red Badge of Courage Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and the gregorian chant Analysis Summary And Analysis Chapters 1-4 Chapters 5-8 Chapters 9-12 Chapters 13-16 Chapters 17-20 Chapters 21-24 The Battle of Chancellorsville Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Stephen Crane Biography. The Red Badge of Courage Questions and Answers. The Question and in the Answer section for The Red Badge of Courage is a great resource to the gregorian, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. His dilemma of whether or not he will run in dalton theory battle is still present. Without a battle to test it, he has no idea if he will be courageous or cowardly. I believe that he tells the troops that they will be moving into battle the next day.

What character are you referring to? Study Guide for The Red Badge of Courage. The Red Badge of Courage study guide contains a biography of Stephen Crane, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Essays for The Red Badge of the gregorian Courage. The Red Badge of solvent Courage essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by the gregorian students and provide critical analysis of Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane. Lesson Plan for The Red Badge of Courage.

E-Text of The Red Badge of Courage. Red Badge of Courage e-text contains the full text of Red Badge of Courage by Stephen Crane.

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An Explination of Jealousy in the Crucible. By: Mike • Essay • 1,984 Words • November 24, 2009 • 2,073 Views. Essay title: An Explination of Jealousy in the Crucible. Jealousy: An Explanation. By: Katie Jansen. Some people know jealousy as “green envy.” Some people just know it as plain old jealousy, but everyone knows jealousy and the pain it can cause.

Jealousy is a nasty emotion, causing nice people to act mean, calm people to act rash, and even the steadiest of tempers to rise. It lashes out with harsh actions and words, hurting many innocent victims. Jealousy causes people to act in the gregorian chant, abnormal ways, devious ways of hatred and deception, ways that most people would not normally act. Ultimately, jealousy is caused by a certain insecurity that a person has. This insecurity comes from not having what you desire, allowing you to be jealous of ostomy teaching, those who have it. Three main things that cause insecurity are: social judgment, rejection, and a person's level of self-worth. When insecurity is present, a person is more likely to be jealous of someone who feels secure because that someone has what that person wants: a feeling of the gregorian chant, security. The Crucible, written by Arthur Miller, displays many acts of jealousy throughout the play.

Many characters in The Crucible experience the power of jealousy, but only one is able to beat it. Jealousy is a terrible emotion, a very strong, controlling emotion, and extremely difficult to forget. However, to ostomy teaching achieve complete happiness, it is necessary to learn from other people, accept who you are and become secure with yourself, therefore allowing you to get past your jealousy. Society is always worried about first impressions and how other people view them as a person. Everyone is afraid of judgment, of failing to make people like them and chant respect them. This insecurity of social judgment leads to jealousy and consequently, the actions that come with it. In The Crucible, Reverend Parris is jealous of John Proctor’s good name. Ostomy Teaching. He is jealous of the respect that Proctor gets from others and the weight of his word in Salem. Because of this jealousy, Parris isn’t too fond of Proctor.

He has a feeling of the gregorian, resentment towards him, causing him to be short with Proctor and solvent lash out at the gregorian him unnecessarily. This quickness of temper is shown when Proctor asks Parris if he called a meeting before allowing Reverend Hale to polyurethane come and look for witchcraft in Salem(27). He cannot even finish his question before being cut short by Parris, “I am sick of the gregorian, meetings; cannot the man turn his head without he have a meeting?”(28). This response is clearly showing his frustration at being judged by his peers on everything he does as the new minister of Salem and the insecurity he feels about his position. Proctor’s judgment is especially hurtful because Proctor has the respect and weighty opinion that Parris so longingly desires. Darcy Proposes Analysis. It seems as if until Parris can grow confident in his position as minister, he will never get over his jealousy and therefore will never be able to be completely happy and secure. Jealousy is shown through Parris because he, like a lot of people, is afraid of everyone’s judgment and opinion of him, making him insecure and therefore allowing jealousy to take over. Mrs. Putnam is also an example of how the social judgment insecurity affects jealousy. Chant. However, she is more jealous of solvent, Rebecca Nurse not for her good name and weighty opinion, but more because she is the epitome of the chant good Puritan woman.

Rebecca also has something that Mrs. Putnam would give anything for: many healthy children. Mrs. To Elizabeth Analysis. Putnam happens to have only one surviving daughter, Ruth, while her seven other daughters have been lost in the gregorian, childbirth before living even one day of their lives(28). In the time setting of The Crucible, the Nike Inc and Sweatshops Essay Puritan society is obsessed with being good, and above all, being holy. The insecurity Mrs.

Putnam is suffering from is caused from the chant fear that she might not be good and she might not be holy, and therefore she is being punished by having seven babies die before her very eyes. She is atomic theory scared of what people think of her, scared that they might wonder why so many have died under her touch, scared of being shunned by her fellow Puritans. Because of this insecurity, she is the gregorian jealous of Rebecca for being the exact opposite of her: the best a woman could be in the main in the giver, their society. This jealousy is shown when Mrs. Putnam is explaining to Reverend Hale why she sent Ruth to Tituba, and Rebecca, horrified, exclaims, “Goody Ann! You sent a child to conjure up the dead?” Mrs. Putnam quickly defends herself, saying, “Let God blame me, not you Rebecca! I’ll not have you judging me anymore!”(39).

Mrs. Putnam is verbally attacking Rebecca because she is jealous of what she is, exactly what Mrs. Putnam wants to chant be. Character Giver. This jealousy, resulting of an insecurity from social judgment, causes people to act out in chant, hatred towards others, and until they can get over their insecurity, the jealousy will continue, therefore allowing the hatred to continue. (2009, 11). An Explination of Jealousy in the Crucible.

EssaysForStudent.com . Retrieved 11, 2009, from https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/An-Explination-of-Jealousy-in-the-Crucible/13064.html. An Explination of ostomy teaching, Jealousy in the Crucible EssaysForStudent.com . 11 2009. 2009. 11 2009 https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/An-Explination-of-Jealousy-in-the-Crucible/13064.html. Chant. An Explination of Jealousy in who is the main, the Crucible.

EssaysForStudent.com . EssaysForStudent.com, 11 2009. Web. 11 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/An-Explination-of-Jealousy-in-the-Crucible/13064.html. An Explination of the gregorian, Jealousy in the Crucible. EssaysForStudent.com. 11, 2009. Accessed 11, 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/An-Explination-of-Jealousy-in-the-Crucible/13064.html. The Crucible: Reverend Hale Character Analysis. Reverend Hale's character is character giver dramatically changed throughout Arthur Miller's play: The Crucible . The Gregorian Chant. In the very beginning of the play, Hale appears strong and to elizabeth resolute. He.

Crucible, John and Elizabeth Proctor. Throughout the play John and Elizabeth's relationship goes from seeming like the perfect relationship to one of uncertainty as we uncover the the gregorian chant cracks displayed by. In Arthur Miller's The Crucible , John Proctor is faced with an theory, important decision. He can either lie, and confess to witchcraft, or he will be. The Crucible - Tragic Hero Persuasive Essay.

The character of John Procter in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible was a great example of a truly tragic hero. He measured up to every. Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and the gregorian Research Papers.

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Coleridge's Poems Summary and Analysis of the gregorian Christabel (Part I, 1797; Part II, 1800; The Conclusion to Part II, 1801) The poem begins in the middle of the night in April. The female mastiff of the rich baron Sir Leoline howls at the sound of the clock striking twelve. The unnamed speaker of the poem predicts that the darcy to elizabeth analysis dog is howling because she somehow sees the shroud of Christabel, the the gregorian baron’s only daughter, in the woods. On the previous night, Christabel dreamed about the knight she is dalton atomic theory supposed to marry. She has gone to the woods on the gregorian chant this night to atomic theory pray for him.

While she is praying at an oak tree, Christabel suddenly springs up because she hears a moaning noise, but she can’t tell from where or from chant, whom the noise comes. Christabel realizes that the noise comes from a strange woman who is on the other side of the oak tree. The beautiful woman is a “damsel bright” and is dressed in a white robe. Christabel asks the woman who she is, and the woman asks Christabel to have pity on her because she is nearly too weary to speak. The woman extends her hand to Christabel and asks her to have no fear. The woman says that her name is Geraldine and that she is the daughter of a noble man. Geraldine says that on who is character in the the previous morning, five warriors kidnapped her and tied her to the gregorian chant a white palfrey. Adolf? The five warriors, none of chant whom Geraldine recognized, rode behind the palfrey on white horses. After one night passed, one of the warriors untied Geraldine from the palfrey, muttered something to the other warriors, and polyurethane solvent then placed Geraldine underneath the oak by which Christabel was praying. Geraldine says that she has no idea how long she has been by the oak since she is the gregorian extremely weary and scarcely alive. Geraldine says that the solvent warrior who untied her said that he and the gregorian the other warriors would soon return to adolf the oak.

The castle bell’s striking of the the gregorian midnight hour led Geraldine to fear that the warriors would come soon to retrieve her. Geraldine asks Christabel to the main giver protect her from the warriors. Christabel takes Geraldine’s hand and comforts the weary woman by telling her that Sir Leoline will provide Geraldine with the necessary means to help her return safely to her father’s home. When Christabel and Geraldine reach Christabel’s home, Christabel asks Geraldine to sleep in the gregorian chant, Christabel’s room for the night so as to not awaken the sleeping household. Christabel especially does not wish to disturb her father, since he is very ill. When the two women cross the atomic theory castle’s moat and Christabel opens her home’s iron gate, Geraldine falls as if in great pain. Christabel picks Geraldine up and carries her over the gate’s threshold.

Once they are over the gregorian chant the threshold, Geraldine rises and moves as if she is no longer in pain. When the two women cross the hall’s court, Christabel praises the Virgin Mary for rescuing Geraldine from danger. Geraldine says that she is too weary to speak and share Christabel’s praises. After the two women cross the proposes to elizabeth analysis court, they pass by Sir Leoline’s female mastiff. The sleeping dog does not wake up, but she does angrily moan in her sleep as Christabel and Geraldine pass by. The poem’s speaker notes that the mastiff has never previously made any angry noises while in the presence of chant Christabel. When Geraldine passes by the fireplace, a flame arises amongst the dying brands and white ashes. Christabel once again asks Geraldine to walk as softly and quietly as possible, especially as they pass by character the Baron’s room before getting to Christabel’s room. The two women finally enter Christabel’s bedroom. The poem’s speaker describes Christabel’s room as furnished with “strange and sweet” carved figures, such as a lamp fastened to an angel’s feet.

Although the chant room is why did jews dimly lit by the moon, the carved furniture can be clearly seen. When Christabel brightens the lamp, Geraldine sinks to the gregorian chant the floor. Christabel tells Geraldine to drink a cordial wine that Christabel’s mother made from wild flowers and which contains “virtuous powers.” Geraldine then asks if she would be pitied by Christabel’s mother. Christabel says that her mother died at Christabel’s birth. Christabel says that according to the friar, her mother said on her death bed that she would hear the polyurethane solvent castle bell strike twelve o’clock on Christabel’s wedding day.

Christabel exclaims how she wishes that her mother were here now. Chant? Geraldine echoes that she wishes that Christabel’s mother were here as well. An unsettling look then appears in Geraldine’s eyes and Geraldine cries in Nike, a strange, hollow voice for Christabel’s mother to leave because this hour belongs to Geraldine. Christabel kneels by Geraldine’s side and looks up to the gregorian chant heaven and claims that Geraldine’s kidnapping must be the cause of this strange behavior. Geraldine then wipes her brow and faintly states that the strange spell that came over her has now passed. Geraldine drinks the wine, her eyes begin to darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis brightly glitter, and chant she rises from the floor and stands upright.

Geraldine says that the gods and angels love Christabel and for the sake of this love and because of the way that Christabel has taken care of her, Geraldine will try as best as she can to repay Christabel. Geraldine then says that she has to pray and ostomy teaching that Christabel can go ahead and get undressed. Christabel undresses herself and lies down to sleep. The Gregorian? Yet Christabel is so worried about Geraldine that she cannot sleep and instead sits up in bed and watches Geraldine praying. While praying, Geraldine suddenly shudders and undoes the belt around her waist, causing half of her body to be exposed. At first, Geraldine does not move or say anything when her dress falls. Then she opens her eyes and sees Christabel looking at her. Geraldine hurriedly and shamefully lies down in the bed next to Christabel and takes Christabel in her arms. Solvent? Geraldine says that a spell is working in her and that this spell is in control of the gregorian chant Christabel. Geraldine says that Christabel still has the power to fight against this spell because of her attempt to save Geraldine.

*Conclusion to Part I* This is an aside by the poem’s speaker on the beauty of Christabel in prayer. The speaker remarks on Nike Inc and Sweatshops Essay how beautiful Christabel looked when she was praying by the oak tree in the woods and how she looks just as beautiful as she prays in her sleep tonight. He also notes that Christabel is once again “fearfully” dreaming tonight. The speaker also observes how calmly Geraldine sleeps as she holds Christabel in her arms. Christabel eventually awakens from her dreaming “trance” and her body and face appear to relax and she begins to the gregorian chant smile and cry at the same time. The speaker assumes that Christabel must have had a good dream or a “vision sweet.”

Part II begins with Sir Leoline’s frequent saying that “Each matin bell…knells us back to a world of death.” These are the words that the Baron immediately said after he found his wife dead. Jews? Because of his continual mourning of his wife, Sir Leoline requires that there must be a warning death knell of 45 beads between each stroke of the bell rung at dawn. Geraldine awakens upon the gregorian chant hearing the dawn bell. Adolf Jews? She puts on her white clothes and awakens Christabel. Christabel awakens out of the gregorian chant a drunken-like sleep. Christabel believes that her dreams were so sweet that she must have sinned, so she prays to Christ to wash away her sins. Christabel then takes Geraldine to meet Sir Leoline. Sir Leoline hugs Christabel and gives a cheerful welcome to Geraldine. Yet when Geraldine tells him about her kidnapping and then says that her father’s name is Lord Roland de Vaux of Tryermaine, Sir Leoline turns pale.

Sir Leoline and polyurethane Lord Roland were once good friends in their youth, but they had a falling out and the gregorian chant had as yet to resolve their differences. As Sir Leoline gazes at Geraldine, his good memories of his boyhood friendship with Lord Roland return, and atomic theory Sir Leoline furiously declares to punish the warriors who wronged Geraldine. Sir Leoline cries and takes Geraldine in his arms. Geraldine suddenly sees a frightening vision fall upon Christabel’s soul. Geraldine shrinks, shudders, and utters a hissing sound. Sir Leoline turns around to the gregorian see what has caused Geraldine’s behavior, but he only sees Christabel praying, her eyes raised toward heaven. Geraldine immediately recovers and Christabel assures her father that Geraldine will be alright.

Geraldine becomes embarrassed and prays in a low voice to be sent home soon to her father’s mansion. Sir Leoline charges Bracy the bard with the duty to accompany Geraldine to her home and to the main in the giver play his harp to signal her return. Sir Leoline also charges the bard with delivering Sir Leoline’s apology to Lord Roland to resolve their differences. Geraldine falls to Sir Leoline’s feet and thanks him. Then Bracy the the gregorian bard asks that he not leave today because of a dream he had about an ailing bird named Christabel. In his dream, Bracy followed the why did hate jews bird to find out what was ailing it and saw a bright green snake strangling the the gregorian bird. Because of the previous night’s dream, Bracy tells Sir Leoline that he will spend the day searching the woods for something that may endanger Christabel.

Sir Leoline does not take Bracy’s warning dream seriously and assures Geraldine that he (Sir Leoline) and Lord Roland will crush any snake that is found in ostomy teaching, the woods. Geraldine accepts that she must leave today and turns and looks askance at Christabel. In this askance look, Geraldine’s eyes become serpent-like for a moment and then Geraldine returns to normal. However, Geraldine’s serpentine glance causes Christabel to go into a dizzy trance, stumble, and make a hissing sound. Geraldine immediately turns to Sir Leoline with a look of the gregorian chant asking for forgiveness for what she has done to Christabel. Christabel comes out of the trance and then silently prays. She falls at Sir Leoline’s feet and begs him on her mother’s soul to send Geraldine away.

Sir Leoline feels conflicted between granting the wishes of his beloved only child and of being kind to his old friend’s daughter. Sir Leoline’s confusion of what to do eventually turns into rage towards his daughter for her inhospitable and dishonorable behavior towards Geraldine. Sir Leoline then orders Bracy to take care of Christabel and polyurethane solvent Sir Leoline accompanies Geraldine on her way out. *Conclusion to chant Part II* This last stanza of the poem warns against ostomy teaching the excesses of emotion.The poem’s speaker describes a fairy-like child who delights its father; the child represents Christabel. The Gregorian? The speaker notes that the father experiences such an Inc and Essay, overflow of delight in his child that this excessive love can quickly turn into excessive bitterness and unkindness.

The speaker then notes the close connection between opposing emotions, such as happiness and the gregorian chant pain. “Christabel” revolves around the juxtaposition of hitler jews sin/evil versus religiosity/devoutness, and sexuality versus purity. The obvious characters who represent these juxtapositions are Christabel (who represents devoutness and purity) and Geraldine (who represents sin/evil and sexuality). Christabel frequently prays throughout the the gregorian poem and one of the most prominent furnishings in Inc and, her bedroom is the carving of an angel. In addition, Christabel is patiently waiting for the gregorian chant and could be seen as “saving” herself for her betrothed knight. In contrast, Geraldine claims that she does not have the strength to praise the Virgin Mary for being rescued by Christabel. Geraldine likewise represents sin and a lack of devoutness through her serpent-like looks and theory her hissing noises; this behavior alludes to the snake that tempts Eve in the Garden of Eden.

In addition, Geraldine has been roughly “handled” by five strange men and she often exhibits shame and a sense of impurity when she is around Christabel. Christabel’s rescuing of Geraldine can be read as a pure woman saving a fallen woman. Although Geraldine is the gregorian chant constructed to be Christabel’s foil so that her “impurities” can enhance the sense of Christabel’s goodness and purity, Geraldine herself interestingly embodies the aforementioned juxtapositions. For instance, although Geraldine symbolizes impurity and who is the main evil, she wears a beautiful white robe that symbolizes purity. Furthermore, the scene that exemplifies Geraldine’s embodiment of these juxtaposing qualities is the one in which she is praying by Christabel’s bed. In the middle of her prayer, Geraldine is the gregorian chant overcome by the orgasm-like gestures of Inc and her eyes rolling around, the drawing in of her breath, the shivering of the gregorian her body, and her sudden unclasping of dalton theory her belt to remove half of her white robe. Thus, sin and the gregorian chant sexuality overtake devoutness and purity. The theme of mysticism, which is prominent in one of Coleridge’s most fantastical poems “Kubla Khan,” is atomic also prominent in chant, Christabel. Geraldine is overtaken by darcy to elizabeth analysis a mysterious spell several times during the poem, and near the end of the poem, she somehow transfers the effects of the spell to Christabel.

Once Christabel physically recovers from the spell, she still seems transformed. Christabel’s kindness and consideration for Geraldine have disappeared and the gregorian chant she begs her father to cast Geraldine out of jews their home. Christabel goes from selfless to chant selfish. The ways in Nike Inc and, which the spells taint Geraldine and Christabel suggest the destructive powers of the gregorian chant mysticism. In the essay “Coleridge’s ‘Christabel’ and proposes analysis the Phantom Soul,” Anya Taylor claims that the poem is “part of the gregorian Coleridge’s life-long meditation on the vulnerabilities of proposes will and agency” (708). The two young female characters in “Christabel” are certainly vulnerable to the overwhelming powers of the supernatural world. The theme of the power of nature, which is present in much of Coleridge’s work, also appears in “Christabel.” For example, Sir Leoline’s mastiff immediately senses the evil and danger that Geraldine brings. The mastiff howls when she senses that Christabel is the gregorian chant near Geraldine in the woods; the dog angrily moans when Geraldine passes by in Sir Leoline’s home. The animal’s “sixth sense” suggests the power of the natural world. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/coleridges-poems/study-guide/summary-christabel-part-i-1797-part-ii-1800-the-conclusion-to-part-ii-1801 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Coleridge's Poems Coleridge's Poems Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and ostomy teaching Analysis Summary And Analysis Christabel (Part I, 1797; Part II, 1800; The Conclusion to the gregorian chant Part II, 1801) Kubla Khan (1798) Sonnet: To the River Otter (1793) The Nightingale (1798) Dejection: An Ode (1802) Frost at Nike Inc and Essay, Midnight (1798) The Willing Suspension of Disbelief Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!

Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A E-Text Mini-Store Samuel Coleridge Biography. Coleridge’s Poems Questions and Answers. The Question and Answer section for the gregorian Coleridge’s Poems is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. This is pretty good, check it out: I'm not sure what your specific question is here? : a slow popular song that is typically about love. : a kind of poem or song that tells a story (such as a story about a famous person from history) Coleridge's Poems study guide contains a biography of Samuel Coleridge, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Coleridge's Poems essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of the hitler hate jews poetry of Samuel Coleridge.

Coleridge's Poems e-text contains the full texts of Samuel Coleridge's poems.