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Best Practices where there is Family Violence (Criminal Law Perspective) The dangers faced by victims of Games Essay, domestic violence at the time of separation are well-established. According to darcy to elizabeth, psychologist Peter Jaffe, director of the Olympic Games Essay Centre for Research on Violence Against Women and proposes analysis, Children at Games Essay the University of Western Ontario and a member of the Ontario chief coroners’ Domestic Violence Death Review Committee, 80% of religious, domestic homicides happen at Games the point of separation or shortly thereafter. Actual or imminent separation is Effective Foreshadowing Of Mice one of the most common risk factors present in cases of Olympic Games, domestic homicides. Hamlet Act 3 Translation! The abused spouse may be at risk even where a complaint has been made to police and Olympic, the perpetrator is subject to othello essay introduction, bail conditions. Indeed, the risk of Games, harm may increase on religious external intervention by police and/or the Olympic Games Essay criminal courts (Ministry of the Attorney General (BC), 2011: 1).

“The inquests into what documented, the deaths of Games, Gillian Hadley and Arlene May and the Commission of Inquiry into darcy to elizabeth, the death of Olympic Games Essay, Rhonda Lavoie provide but three of many horrific examples of hamlet, what can happen when the Olympic Essay cycle of violence is to elizabeth analysis permitted to spin out of control. Essay! All three cases involved murder-suicides. All three cases involved a history of domestic violence leading up to why cyberbullying is bad, the catastrophic event where various anemic bail conditions on release and re-release did not provide appropriate protection to the female spouse. In each case, the recommendations identified the failures of the bail system as a major component in Games Essay, the criminal justice system’s failure to translation, adequately address the Games dynamic apparent in essay, these relationships.” (Saull, 2008: 10-11) These concerns have informed policies and directives to Crown prosecutors to exercise caution in consenting to the release of an accused charged with an offence involving family violence. Essay! The murders of Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, women like Arlene May and Games Essay, Gillian Hadley both killed by why cyberbullying is bad, estranged partners on Games Essay bail at the time of the murders demonstrate how crucial it is for Effective and Symbolism and Men Crowns and courts to have an Olympic Games adequate understanding of the hamlet act 3 translation risk presented by an accused before making a determination about release pending trial. Balanced against these concerns, however, must be a recognition that in the often emotional context of Olympic, a family breakdown, allegations of tribal, violence made by one spouse against another can be exaggerated or even fabricated. In such cases, restrictive bail conditions may not be necessary. Games Essay! Moreover, as Justice Pugsley described in Shaw v. Shaw such conditions can negatively affect the proper adjudication of related family law matters: Family courts decide custody and for Deliverance examples, access issues on Olympic the basis of statute and case law defining the best interests of the children.

The criminal justice system pays no attention to othello, such interests because it is not geared up to do so nor are the Olympic Games Essay participants widely trained in how the actions of the A Cry for Deliverance examples system from the officer who refuses to Games Essay, release the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis defendant at the station, to the duty counsel who allows the defendant to agree to inappropriate conditions of release out of Olympic Essay, expediency effect the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis lives of the members of the defendant’s family. Games! Similarly the Superior Court is A Cry Essay examples tasked with the Games duty of Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, adjudicating the Olympic Essay respective rights of the parties to remain in the matrimonial home pending the resolution of the matrimonial litigation. Routine orders excluding a party from the darcy analysis common home of the Olympic Games Essay parties until the end of the criminal matter without thought to the consequences thereof, and essay introduction, without a remedy short of a bail review, place one party in a position of immediate superiority over the other party for as long as it takes (perhaps a year) for defended criminal charges to be resolved. Such rote treatment of all matters of domestic assault can lead, on the one hand, to Olympic, concocted or exaggerated claims of criminal behaviour or, on tribal the other hand, to Games, innocent defendants pleading guilty at an early stage out of Effective Use of Of Mice and Men, expediency or a shared desire with the complainant to start to rehabilitate the family unit ( Shaw v. Essay! Shaw , 2008: para. 5). It is in this context, where legitimate safety concerns must be balanced against why cyberbullying is bad unnecessary restrictions on the liberty of an Olympic Essay accused and Effective Use of and Men, disruptions to his or her family, that bail decisions are made. Below we attempt to Games, identify best practices aimed at balancing these competing concerns. When an individual is charged with a criminal offence, he or she will either be released by police or held for a bail hearing.

Sections 496, 497, 498, 499 and 503 of the how did the army affect Criminal Code govern the manner in which the police may release an accused person and compel his or her subsequent appearance in court. 4.2.1 Summons and Appearance Notices. Where the Essay police do not arrest an accused, attendance at hamlet court can be compelled by Olympic, an Appearance Notice (issued by police and later confirmed by for Deliverance, a Justice of the Olympic Peace, when the charges are laid), or by a summons issued by a Justice of the Peace when the in sparta charges are laid. Both an Olympic appearance notice and Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice, a summons are official documents requiring a person to Games, appear in court at a specific time and place to answer (or respond to) a criminal charge. They will generally only be used in the least serious cases where the why cyberbullying police do not believe the Olympic Games Essay accused needs to darcy proposes to elizabeth, be subject to any conditions and do not have concerns that the accused will fail to attend court. They are not commonly used where the criminal charge involves allegations of family violence. The appearance notice or summons will often require an accused to Olympic Essay, also attend the local police station on a certain date in essay introduction, advance of the Olympic first court appearance to have fingerprints and photographs taken. No discussion of the offence takes place at the station and an accused person does not need to tribal religious, be accompanied by Olympic, a lawyer. Accused individuals should be aware that if they fail to Effective Use of in Steinbeck's, go for Olympic Games fingerprinting or fail to A Cry Essay examples, attend court on Olympic Games the date specified, they can be arrested and charged with the criminal offence of failing to Essay, appear (s. 145(4)-(10)). Essay! 4.2.2 Promise to darcy proposes to elizabeth, Appear and Recognizance.

If the Games accused is arrested without a warrant, the Criminal Code requires the essay arresting officer (s. Olympic Games Essay! 497) or the Officer-In-Charge of the translation police custody facility (s. 498) to assess whether detention is Olympic Games required to: establish the the army life identity of the person, secure or preserve evidence of or relating to the offence, or prevent the continuation or repetition of the offence or the commission of Olympic Games, another offence. A Cry For Deliverance Examples! An officer may also detain an accused where he or she has reason to believe that, if the Essay person is released from custody, the Essay person will fail to Games, attend court. If detention is othello introduction not required, police must release the accused from the station. In making this assessment, the police typically consider the Essay personal history of the what is a essay accused (any prior breaches, education, family, and Olympic Games, employment), the Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men circumstances of the Olympic specific charge, and documented, the complainant’s wishes. An accused person who is not released by the police is to be brought before a court for a judicial interim release (“bail”) hearing within 24 hours, or “as soon as possible” thereafter (s. 503). Bail practices are considered in detail below. Games! An accused person who is arrested without a warrant and act 3 translation, not held for a bail hearing may be released by Olympic Essay, police on translation 1) an appearance notice or with the intention of having a summons issued; 2) a promise to appear; or 3) on a recognizance. A promise to appear or a recognizance are the only methods available where the arrest is Games Essay made with a warrant (s.

499). Tribal Religious! The appearance notice and summons are described above. Games Essay! The promise to appear is similar to darcy analysis, an appearance notice but it must be signed by Olympic Essay, the accused. A recognizance requires an essay accused to follow certain conditions with a financial penalty to a maximum of $500 if they are not followed. The recognizance may or may not require a deposit of the pledged money. Games! Both a promise to appear and why cyberbullying, a recognizance can be accompanied by an undertaking (in Form 11.1) made to the police to abide by Olympic Games Essay, certain conditions while the accused person is on a release (s. 499 and 503).

An undertaking can have one or more of the following conditions: to remain within a territorial jurisdiction, to notify the why cyberbullying is bad officer of Games Essay, any change of address, employment, or occupation, to abstain from tribal religious, communicating directly or indirectly with specified individuals, to abstain from attending certain locations, to Games Essay, deposit his or her passport, to abstain from Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's and Men, possessing any firearm and to surrender any firearms licenses, to report at certain times to Olympic Games Essay, the police, to abstain from the othello introduction consumption of alcohol or other intoxicating substances, to abstain from the consumption of drugs except in Olympic Games, accordance with a medical prescription, and to comply with any other condition the officer in charge considers necessary to translation, ensure the safety and security of any victim or witness. Olympic Games! Failure to comply with the undertaking is a criminal offence (s. 145(5.1)). Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth! Many individuals charged with offences relating to allegations of domestic violence are not released from the Olympic Games Essay police station. Instead they are held for a “show cause” hearing.

In some jurisdictions, there is an “unwritten policy” within police services that all accused charged with domestic violence related offences will be held for a bail hearing. These sorts of policies do not accord with the A Cry obligations of Olympic, police officers under the the army affect life in sparta Code which require the police to consider release pursuant to s. Essay! 498 and what is a, 499. Notably, in R. v. Rashid , 2009, the Olympic Essay trial judge found a breach of hamlet act 3 translation, section 9 of the Games Essay Charter when the why cyberbullying is bad arresting officer failed to consider whether a release from the station was appropriate and acted, instead, pursuant to a blanket policy requiring detention in domestic violence cases irrespective of the Olympic Essay accused’s personal circumstances or the nature of the why cyberbullying is bad office. An accused will typically spend a night in police custody and then will be brought to court for a bail hearing. The accused may spend more time in custody if he or she is arrested on a weekend or requires time to retain a lawyer and identify sureties. [4] At court, the Crown may either consent to the accused’s release subject to Games Essay, specified conditions or can oppose the Essay accused’s release. Where the Crown is opposed to Games, release, there will be a contested bail hearing that takes place before a justice of the peace. Pursuant to s. 515 of the hamlet act 3 translation Criminal Code , an accused will be released pending trial unless the Essay prosecutor “shows cause” why the how did the army affect life detention of the accused is necessary. The Crown can seek an accused’s detention on one of Games Essay, three grounds: to ensure the accused’s attendance in court (“primary ground”) for is bad the protection and Olympic Games, safety of the public (“secondary ground”) to maintain confidence in the administration of justice (“tertiary ground”) In certain situations specified in why cyberbullying is bad, the Criminal Code , the onus is Olympic Games Essay reversed and the accused must show cause why he should not be detained. For example, the onus will be on the accused where he is for Deliverance charged with failing to comply with a condition of a recognizance or undertaking, while he was on release for an earlier charge that is still pending (s.

515(6)). 4.3 Crown Approach to Bail in Essay, Cases of Alleged Family Violence. Why Cyberbullying! Public safety grounds are, not surprisingly, of Olympic Games Essay, significant concern in proposes, the context of allegations of domestic violence. In response to tragic deaths in several high profile cases and a growing understanding of the dynamics of family violence, many Crown offices have developed specific policies in respect of bail practice and procedure in cases of Games Essay, domestic violence. In the exercise of prosecutorial discretion in what is a documented, cases of Olympic, domestic violence, the analysis safety of the complaint and his or her family will be the paramount factor for the Crown to consider. In Ontario, Crowns are guided in their exercise of discretion by the guidelines contained in the Crown Policy manual. The manual, like the guidebooks in Olympic Games, other provinces, directs Crowns to Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's, consider detailed risk assessments conducted by Essay, the police at the time of arrest. Hamlet Act 3! Factors that will be considered by the Crown include: the nature of the offence; the extent/presence of Olympic Games Essay, injuries; the history of the accused; the history of the tribal religious relationship; any outstanding charges; any prior breach of Olympic, a court order by the accused; concerns of the complainant; drug or alcohol abuse on hamlet act 3 the part of the accused; psychiatric issues; whether there is any evidence of Olympic Essay, criminal harassment; the strength of the Crown’s case; and why cyberbullying, the level of violence alleged by the complainant. Olympic Essay! The Crown needs sufficient information about these factors in order to othello essay introduction, make an informed decision about whether to seek an Olympic Games Essay accused’s detention. Similarly, the for Deliverance Essay examples court will need the Olympic Games same information in order to make a determination as to darcy, whether detention is necessary and to craft appropriate conditions in Olympic Essay, cases where the othello introduction accused is released ( R. v. E.M.B. , 2000).

Accordingly, it is critical that Crown offices establish protocols with local police services in Olympic Games Essay, respect of ensuring Crowns have sufficient information to conduct a bail hearing. In Sparta! In Ontario, that information sharing occurs by way of mandatory “risk assessment checklist” and form. Olympic! The value of the othello essay risk assessment, of course, depends on Olympic Essay the reliability of the information that informs it. Police must be trained to properly complete the form (How, 2012). 4.3.1 Collecting Information for Bail Hearings.

As Justice Hill explained in R. v. Villota , citing the Report of the affect Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System, Crown counsel have “enormous control over information about the offence and are required to Olympic, assume a leadership role in bail hearings to tribal religious, secure justice in Essay, the bail system.” ( R. v. Villota , 2002: para. 70) The challenges faced by Crown counsel at bail hearings are significant and the stakes high. The obligation to ensure the court has adequate information to make a decision about affect, release will fall primarily on the Crown. Games Essay! Crown offices in Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, many jurisdictions have developed policy guidelines and Olympic Games, directives to assist prosecutors in othello essay introduction, fulfilling this role in Games, the context of busy bail courts. Numerous stakeholders interviewed in analysis, the course of preparing this report indicated how beneficial it would be for a criminal court particularly a bail court to have access to family court and child protection orders. Olympic Essay! Relying on the accused and the complainant to convey accurate information about the existence and status of why cyberbullying is bad, civil proceedings was not viewed as sufficient. Helen How, Deputy Crown Attorney in Toronto, believes that the lack of access to court documents between the criminal and Essay, civil proceedings is hamlet translation one of the Games Essay greatest challenges facing domestic prosecutions. Use Of And Symbolism Of Mice! Ms.

How indicates that she only sees a family court order if it is Olympic Games provided by a complainant (How, 2012). Why Cyberbullying! Justice Bovard, who helped to create Toronto’s integrated domestic violence court and has written and lectured extensively on the topic of the intersection of criminal and family law, similarly believes it would be beneficial for Games Essay criminal courts to have access to “FRANK” the case tracking system in Ontario developed to address the management of information in civil cases. The information management system in Ontario was the why cyberbullying subject of recent criticism in the judgment of Olympic Games Essay, Justice Brown in analysis, Romspen Investment Corp. Olympic Games! v. Effective Foreshadowing And Symbolism! 6176666 Canada Ltée . In colourful language, Justice Brown attacked what he called the antiquated document management and case scheduling system of the Games Ontario courts: I suppose that on a sunny, unusually warm, mid-March day one should be mellow and the army, accept, without complaint, the systemic failures and delay of this Court’s document management system. The problem is that from the perspective of the members of the Olympic Games public who use this Court, delays caused by Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, our antiquated, wholly-inadequate document management system impose unnecessary, but all too real, costs on Olympic Games them. And yet the entity that operates that part of the Court’s administration system the Court Services Division of the Ministry of the the army life in sparta Attorney General seems completely indifferent to Olympic Games, the unnecessary costs it is why cyberbullying causing to the members of the Games Essay public who use our Court ( Romspen , 2012 at para. 1).

Though made in the context of Use of in Steinbeck's Of Mice, a decision about a commercial dispute, the short comings of the paper-based document management highlighted by Games Essay, Justice Brown may be equally applicable to cases involving family violence. A court system “under which documents were filed electronically and accessible to judges and othello essay, others through a web-based system, with sealed documents specially encrypted to limit access to judges only” would no doubt facilitate better informed judicial determinations in family law, criminal and child protection proceedings. In some jurisdictions, family and criminal courts have developed protocols for Olympic Games information sharing. For example, Lanark County, Ontario, has created a formal protocol for domestic violence cases involving criminal and family courts (Goldberg, 2011: 53). These types of protocols help to act 3 translation, ensure the criminal court has accurate information about pending family law proceedings before making a bail order. A court granting bail and deciding on Essay terms of release should be aware of the following: any family court orders or proceedings; the accused’s access to the children related to the complainant; the risk assessment and/or safety checklist completed by A Cry, police; any restrictions imposed by a child protection agency; and Olympic Essay, accused’s history, or lack of tribal, history, of violence. In cases involving allegations of family violence, the most common terms of Olympic, release include: “no-contact” conditions in othello introduction, respect of the complainant; a “no-go” term restricting the accused from attending within a specified distance of the complainant’s home and work place; restrictions on Olympic Games Essay access to is bad, the children of the Olympic Essay complainant; an how did the army abstain from Essay, drugs and translation, alcohol clause and a weapons prohibition.

The terms of release in respect of Olympic Essay, communication and access to children are the most difficult to is a, draft and often have the most impact on parallel family law proceedings. Justice Bovard explains the difficulties that can arise from Games Essay, restrictive bail conditions imposed in cases where an darcy proposes allegation of domestic violence has been made: Family law cases are quite complex and Olympic Games, the dynamic is often in flux; things change rapidly and the Family Court has to be able to is a, react to Essay, these changes in Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, a meaningful way without being encumbered by Games Essay, bail orders that tie its hand behind its back. Bail conditions can last a long time and Effective Use of and Symbolism, this makes it almost impossible to Olympic Games, deal with issues that come up regarding the welfare of Essay, children and access and support issues. Olympic Games Essay! People need to Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, contact each other to Games, deal with these issues. It is especially important to resolve issues that touch on the best interest of children in Use of in Steinbeck's and Men, the most efficient manner. This is difficult, if not impossible, to do if the parents are not allowed to contact each other (Bovard, 2009). In this section of the report, we review typical bail conditions, identify potential problems with the wording chosen and provide suggestions for better practices.

4.4.1 “No contact directly or indirectly with the complainant except through a mutually agreeable third-party or pursuant to a Family Court order and Games, only for purposes of arranging and facilitating child access.” The wording of this condition properly avoids the “blanket” prohibition on communication that Justice Bovard and others have counseled against. For that reason it enjoys significant advantages over a condition that requires spouses to absolutely refrain from contact (e.g. Use Of And Symbolism In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men! “abstain from Essay, communicating directly or indirectly with the complainant”). Absolute prohibitions are likely to prevent any progress being made in parallel family law or child protection proceedings and may be inconsistent with family court orders in why cyberbullying, respect of Olympic Games Essay, custody and access. However, there remain some difficulties with the wording. First, a bail condition that requires the darcy proposes analysis complainant’s consent to appoint a “neutral” third party to Olympic Games, assist with contact and is a documented essay, access to the children may put pressure on the complainant to agree, could enhance any existing power imbalance and create another source of tension in Games Essay, the relationship. A better solution may involve requiring a surety or officer-in-charge to religious, agree to the third party (Bovard, 2012). Second, arranging and facilitating access to children may be frustrated even where bail conditions permit communication through a third party. For example, the inability of an Olympic Games accused who is the army exercising her access rights to the children to notify the complainant of unexpected lateness or emergency situations may result in further tension between the accused and the complainant or even further police involvement.

For this reason, in Essay, appropriate cases, a court may wish to Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, consider whether a non-communication condition could include an exception for “contact by e-mail or text message, the Olympic Games Essay contents of which are limited to arrangement related to religious, access to Olympic Games, children only.” This sort of hamlet, exception to Games Essay, the non-communication order may not be appropriate in religious, cases involving serious allegations of violence, where the complainant does not feel safe having any contact with the accused. In many more minor cases, however, such an exception may be beneficial. Third, the Games condition set out above does not allow for contact between the Essay examples accused and the complainant through counsel or for any purpose other than facilitating access to Olympic Games Essay, the children. Ongoing family law proceedings will be effectively put on hold if the parties are not allowed to why cyberbullying is bad, communicate in any way, even through their respective family law counsel. 4.4.2 “Contact with children to be exercised under the Essay supervision of the Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men child protection agency or pursuant to Games, the order of a court of othello, competent jurisdiction.” Crafting appropriate terms of Olympic Essay, release relating to the accused’s access to his or her children presents a significant challenge for the army in sparta the criminal courts: Termination of contact between parents and Essay, children can seriously and often detrimentally affect their lifelong relationship. Introduction! No-contact orders can also impede counselling or other efforts to Games Essay, address the analysis underlying issues facing the family, and can prevent any meaningful assessment of whether regular contact is in the child’s best interest. Further, it can be very difficult to Olympic Essay, change release conditions once they are made; no-contact bail orders can remain in and Symbolism in Steinbeck's, place for a year or more in Olympic, some cases, despite every effort of documented essay, child protection agencies to change them.

For these reasons, judges may prefer to craft conditions of Olympic, release that allow for child protection authorities and/or family courts to proposes analysis, determine whether access should occur and under what circumstances (Goldberg, 2012: 54). There are a number of factors to Olympic Essay, consider in deciding on tribal appropriate terms of release including the Olympic circumstances of the offence and tribal, whether or not the Games Essay child is the complainant or a witness in life, respect of the alleged offence. In cases where the child is the Olympic complainant or a witness, a complete prohibition on communication may be necessary pending trial. Strict no contact provisions are informed by concerns that 1) contact between an introduction accused parent and a child complainant will give rise (even subconsciously) to Games Essay, feelings of guilt or doubt that could affect the child’s ability and willingness to testify truthfully; and 2) an hamlet accused may attempt to Essay, influence the child’s evidence. The prosecution may oppose a condition that permits a family court order to allow access to the child. The objective of the family court is the why cyberbullying is bad best interests of the child, but that court may not have sufficient information about the underlying criminal charge or the emotional conflict that can ensue from Olympic Games Essay, having to testify in court (Witkin, 2007: 2; Joseph Stangarone, 2009: 2-3). Tribal! Ms.

How explains that she is cautious about Olympic Essay, relying on Essay family court orders when crafting bail conditions because of the Olympic Essay different goals of the Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice family and criminal court proceedings. In her view, civil proceedings are often aimed at reunification of the family while criminal proceedings focus on safety issues and ensuring an effective prosecution (How, 2012). The concerns of the Crown regarding delegating contact decisions to a family court may be alleviated by a condition in Olympic Games Essay, the bail directing the family court to consider the why cyberbullying is bad criminal charges when making an order for contact (Goldberg, 2011: 54). Olympic Games! In cases of othello essay introduction, allegations of spousal assault that do not involve the children as complainants or witnesses, the Olympic Games Essay justification for strict no-contact provisions is attenuated. Where a child is in hamlet, no danger from the accused parent, separation for a significant length of time can needlessly result in unnecessary damage to the parent-child relationship. In these situations, a requirement that contact be supervised by Olympic Games, a child protection agency may not be appropriate or necessary. Child protection agencies have limited resources to tribal, supervise parental access visits. Accordingly contact between the accused parent and Olympic Games Essay, the child may be restricted not because of any safety concerns but simply because of a lack of religious, resources.

The condition set out above, which would permit contact with children under the supervision of the child protection agency or pursuant to Olympic, the order of a court of competent jurisdiction is darcy to elizabeth analysis troublesome in that it could result in conflicting orders between the Children’s Aid Society (CAS ) and the family court. Moreover, as Justice Bovard explains, CAS may not be willing to Olympic Games, act in introduction, a supervisory role. Olympic Games Essay! Child protection agencies that are not involved with the family may object to why cyberbullying, being involved in enforcing bail orders and take the position it is not within the agency’s mandate to supervise access for Olympic Games Essay all parents involved in the criminal justice system. Darcy To Elizabeth! Even where CAS is Olympic Essay prepared to hamlet, supervise, the access facilitated may be sporadic, at best. Essay! There are resource issues which severely limit the what is a documented amount of Olympic, supervised access that is religious available. For these reasons, in Justice Bovard’s view, the Family Court is Olympic Games Essay really in the best position to darcy proposes, consider all of the circumstances when deciding questions of access and to make a determination that is in the child’s best interest. Games Essay! Justice Bovard’s sentiments are echoed by Kate Kehoe: Child protection authorities have a specific legislative mandate to ensure the what safety and Games, well-being of the army affect life in sparta, children, and Olympic Essay, can provide services to the family to alleviate protection concerns. However, orders which only provide for access as directed by the child protection authorities do not permit any variation in hamlet translation, cases where the Games Essay family court judge is darcy proposes to elizabeth of the opinion that the child protection authorities are not exercising their discretion in Olympic Games, the best interests of the tribal religious children. Further, orders which provide for access “supervised by the child protection authority” can place the child protection authority in a difficult position. In some cases, the agency may not have grounds to bring the Essay matter before the how did court or may be of the view that the safety of the child can be ensured without a court order (perhaps with a family member or access centre providing the supervision). However, child protection agencies are often not funded by their governing bodies to Olympic Games Essay, supervise access except where such access is court-ordered.

The agency will therefore be forced to commence litigation solely for the purpose of carrying out the order made by essay introduction, the criminal court (Kehoe: 4). There appears to be some consensus that child protection agencies should not be mandated by Games Essay, bail conditions to Use of and Symbolism Of Mice and Men, supervise access. However, where a court nevertheless wishes to Olympic Games, impose this sort of condition, it may be beneficial to include a term specifying the minimum amount of access that is to be facilitated (e.g. “contact with children to be exercised under the A Cry for Deliverance supervision of the child protection agency and not to occur less than once per week”). While this does not address all of the concerns noted above, it does ensure some consistent access to the children for an accused parent. 4.4.3 “Contact with children pursuant to Games, a Family Court order that post-dates the date of this order” “Contact with children pursuant to a Family Court order” Where the bail includes a condition that contact with children is hamlet permitted pursuant to a family court order, the term should specify that the Olympic Games Essay family court order be one that post dates the hamlet translation bail order. Games Essay! A family court order made before the arrest of the accused may no longer be appropriate in why cyberbullying is bad, light of the criminal allegations. For example, a family court order allowing for Olympic Essay generous access for a non-custodial parent should not continue to A Cry Essay, govern when the Olympic parent has been charged with assaulting the child. Justice Bovard suggests that the term “post-dates” is unnecessarily confusing to many accused persons. Essay! This could be replaced with “made after this bail order.” If a court determines that it is necessary to Olympic Games, have a condition limiting contact between an darcy proposes analysis accused and his or her children, the Olympic Games Essay condition “Contact with children pursuant to a Family court order that post-dates the date of this order” is likely the best option available.

The difficulty with even this sort of provision, however, arises from the practical realities of obtaining a family court order which can impose significant barriers to access for an accused parent. Justice Bovard explains that an application for access made to why cyberbullying is bad, a family court can take several months to Olympic, be heard during which time the Essay accused parent and Games, the child cannot have contact. Delays can be even longer if either or both parents are unrepresented. According to Justice Bovard up to 70% of litigants in Ontario Court of tribal, Justice family matters are unrepresented (Bovard, 2012). In some cases the Olympic Games Essay resulting delay in why cyberbullying, contact between parent and child cannot be safely avoided, however a total prohibition on Essay contact will not be necessary in all cases. A busy justice of the Essay peace in a busy provincial court house is unlikely to Olympic Essay, have sufficient information at a bail hearing including reliable information on tribal the dynamics in Essay, the family and the historic relationships between parents and children to why cyberbullying, make an Olympic Games Essay appropriate access decision. To Elizabeth! It is in Olympic Games Essay, this context that a bail court must undertake the act 3 translation difficult task of assessing the risk presented to children or other family members with little information and little knowledge as to how the family will be dealt with by other courts. Best practices for ensuring that bail courts have as much information as possible are discussed in other sections of the report. Olympic Games Essay! Where, having considered the available information, the bail court is satisfied that there is is bad no apparent danger associated with the children having contact with the accused, any decisions about Games, access and custody may be best left to the family court. We note, however, that where the why cyberbullying is bad terms of Olympic Essay, bail do not address access issues there may be a period of time where no court order is in place governing the interaction between an accused parent and othello essay, a child. 4.5 Defence Counsel / Duty Counsel Approach to Bail.

4.5.1 Ensuring Reasonable Bail Conditions. Games! Being detained, particularly for an accused person who has never had any previous experience in the criminal justice system, can impose an intolerable amount of pressure on is bad an individual and may result in an unwarranted guilty plea. Negotiating a speedy release for a client is therefore critical. Games! It is equally important, however, that the client be willing and is a, able to comply with the Olympic bail conditions imposed. It will be difficult to vary conditions agreed to essay, in an Olympic Essay effort to hamlet act 3 translation, get out of custody quickly, particularly where the Games conditions were negotiated by experienced defence counsel.

In R. v. Bain , for what is a documented example, the accused ex-husband was released on the consent of the Games Essay Crown with conditions including that he not attend within 200 metres of the matrimonial home. For Deliverance Essay Examples! This term was included in the recognizance of bail despite the fact that at the time of his arrest, the accused was residing in that home, the Olympic Games complainant was living in another residence and the two were in the process of litigating the issue of is bad, possession of the matrimonial home in family court. Justice Shaw held that it was not role of the criminal courts to vary the accused’s conditions of Olympic, bail in order to “level the playing field” in the family court proceedings ( R. v. Bain , 2009: para. 13). In addition to the issues addressed above relating to communication with the complainant and for Deliverance examples, access to Olympic Games Essay, children, defence counsel should also ensure that the bail conditions do not place an accused at why cyberbullying is bad any more of a disadvantage in the family law proceedings than absolutely necessary. Counsel should ensure, for example, that the accused is Olympic permitted to return to the matrimonial home, in the company of Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, police, to obtain personal items. If family law proceedings are initiated (including custody, access or support application), the accused will need personal and Olympic Games Essay, financial documents, including bank statements, tax returns, pay stubs, passport, etc. Terms of the how did the army in sparta bail that restrict access to the family home can also amount to de facto orders for the exclusive possession of the Olympic Essay family home. Similarly, restrictions on is a documented essay contact with children imposed by the bail order can result in the creation of a “status quo” in relation to issues of custody and Olympic Games Essay, access. 4.5.2 Checklist for Defence Counsel and Duty Counsel.

As set out above, risk assessments play a significant role in the exercise of Crown discretion in domestic violence cases, including bail decisions. Defence counsel must be prepared to deal with this approach and be able to respond to darcy, and address Crown counsel’s concerns. Defence counsel will be in a better position to Olympic Games Essay, negotiate workable terms of release where he or she has the following information: Does the client have children? How will the bail order affect his or her access to hamlet translation, the children? What, if any, family court proceedings is Games your client involved in? Divorce?

Custody and access? Child/spousal Support? Child protection? When is the next court date? Does the client have a family lawyer? Are there any existing family court orders regarding: custody and access or exclusive possession of the proposes analysis matrimonial home? Do the circumstances of the allegation make the previous order inappropriate? Are the Games Essay circumstances such that counsel can argue that issue of hamlet act 3, access is Games better left to the family courts in A Cry Essay examples, the circumstances of the case? Has a risk assessment been conducted by the Crown or police?

If so, can a copy be obtained from the Olympic Games Crown? An accused at religious a bail hearing is often being assisted by duty counsel who has no previous relationship with the accused and Essay, limited ability to find out the Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice answers to these questions. Duty counsel should find out from the Olympic accused whether he or she has a family lawyer or a lawyer in relation to tribal, child protection proceedings. Counsel in these matters can be an invaluable source of information on Games Essay short notice. It is important to proposes to elizabeth analysis, note that in many cases an Olympic Games Essay accused person charged with a domestic violence offence will remain unrepresented by proposes to elizabeth analysis, counsel throughout the Olympic Essay criminal proceedings. As Ms. A Cry For Deliverance Examples! How explains, in Olympic Games Essay, Ontario, individuals will not qualify for legal aid unless there is a risk they will be sentenced to act 3 translation, a term of imprisonment if found guilty and they meet strict financial eligibility guidelines (How, 2012). Olympic! The Crown, with the the army life in sparta assistance of the investigating police force, is likely to have compiled background information including prior incidents, complainant input and risk assessments.

Where the Olympic Games Essay Crown wishes to rely on tribal religious this information in the course of the bail hearing, it must be disclosed to the accused. Duty counsel should examine this material and discuss it with the Olympic accused before the hearing if at is bad all possible (Legal Aid Ontario: 49). Actuarial risk assessment tools, such as the Olympic Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), may be completed by proposes to elizabeth, police and provided to Essay, the Crown in what is a documented, advance of the bail hearing. Risk assessment results and reports are not admissible as evidence unless an Games Essay expert witness is called who can interpret the report and Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice, express an opinion in regard to Games Essay, its validity as a predictor of what essay, behaviour. However, the facts which underlie the risk assessment score may be introduced as evidence (Nova Scotia Public Prosecution Service, 2009: 2). In many jurisdictions Crown counsel will take a conservative approach to Olympic Games Essay, bail in is a documented, cases of Games Essay, domestic violence. How Did Affect Life In Sparta! The Crown may seek detention even where there is Olympic Essay no criminal record and no outstanding charges. Where the act 3 translation Crown consents to the accused person’s release it is often only Games Essay where the what is a documented essay terms of release require the accused to reside with a surety. The bail handbook developed by Legal Aid Ontario for duty counsel reminds duty counsel that, in this context, it will often to fall to duty counsel to protect the Games Essay record and “repeatedly remind the court of the requirements of hamlet act 3, s. 515 of the Code ” which places the onus on Olympic Essay the Crown to show cause for each increasingly restrictive form of othello essay introduction, release. Games! The range of cases that involve allegations of hamlet act 3 translation, “domestic violence” varies widely. The tendency to Games, lump all such cases together and what essay, insist on the same stringent bail conditions in all cases must be resisted.

In Appendix A we have outlined some relevant case law which may assist in a contested bail hearing. Essay! Counsel representing an accused at a bail hearing should ensure, if possible, that the terms of release: permit the accused to return to the matrimonial home, in the company of the police, to collect personal effects, including financial documentation; do not limit contact between the accused and the complainant that will hamper the what is a documented essay accused’s ability to resolve his or her family law case (e.g. avoid conditions that prohibit any contact between the Olympic Essay accused and complainant, without exception); specify minimum terms of access to children where a complete prohibition is how did life in sparta not warranted; and do not restrict the accused’s ability to work. 4.5.3 Advising a Client after Release. An individual who is accused of a domestic offence and has spent a night in Olympic Essay, custody often experiences a certain shock at the reality of his or her situation. What Is A Documented! That state of shock can make it difficult for Essay the individual to take the documented necessary steps to Games, address the numerous and pressing issues relating to Effective Of Mice and Men, both the family and criminal proceedings. Olympic Games Essay! Defence counsel should advise the client to to elizabeth, retain family law counsel as soon as possible and provide the names of Games Essay, referrals. How Did The Army Life! The accused may need to respond to emergency motions brought without notice by the complainant or may need to Olympic Games Essay, bring his or her own applications. For instance, the is a essay accused may consider making one of the following emergency applications in order to Games, protect his or her relationship with the children and religious, prevent the creation of Games, a “status quo” in what, respect of custody and Olympic Games, possession of the matrimonial home: Emergency order for how did affect in sparta specified access to the children. This type of Olympic Games Essay, application should be made immediately where the criminal court has imposed conditions that do not provide for to elizabeth access; Order for supervised access if that is what is Olympic Essay required by the bail conditions.

Where such a condition is imposed, defence counsel may wish to include a requirement that the access supervisor be required to deliver access reports to counsel or the Effective and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men court, particularly, where an accused believes such reports will reflect favourably on him or her (and/or could demonstrate attempts at parental alienation by Games, the complainant); Order for how did affect life the non-removal of children from the jurisdiction, if the Olympic accused believes the complainant is essay introduction a flight risk; A Preservation order to prevent depletion of a spouse’s property (Halpern, et al., 2007: 14-15). Family Law Act of Ontario, if the court considers it necessary for Olympic Games the protection of the other spouse's interests under this Part, the othello essay court may make an interim or final order,(a) restraining the depletion of a spouse's property; and (b) for Essay the possession, delivering up, safekeeping and preservation of the property.[5] Where an accused is unable to retain counsel for the family law matter, defence counsel may wish to Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice, point the client to the resources available for Games unrepresented litigants. Documented! In order to allow for the effective drafting of applications and Games Essay, responses, family counsel should be made aware of the life in sparta nature of the criminal allegations against Olympic Games Essay the accused and introduction, any bail conditions imposed. Where affidavits are prepared in support of the applications or responses, it is good practice to have the contents reviewed by criminal counsel. Olympic Essay! As will be discussed in Effective Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, greater detail below, the Essay contents of materials filed in family court proceedings can make exceptional fodder for cross-examination at how did life in sparta a criminal trial.

An accused and Olympic Essay, a complainant must ensure that statements made and positions taken in the family law context are not inconsistent with those made and taken in act 3, the criminal courts. Client management and proper explanation of the Olympic Games consequences of Effective Use of and Symbolism and Men, breaching a bail condition are crucial. Clients need to Games, know that if they breach a condition of bail (or an undertaking given to the police), they will end up back in custody and introduction, that bail will be significantly more difficult to obtain in Games, the face of breach charges, particularly in hamlet act 3 translation, light of the Olympic Games Essay reverse onus provisions (s. 145 and s. 515(6)(c)). While the hamlet act 3 concept seems simple, the dynamics at Games play in cases of allegations of examples, domestic violence often add complications. Games Essay! Clients are likely to tribal, become frustrated with the slow pace of the criminal justice system and will want to resume communication, and even cohabitation with the complainant. A complainant who shares those desires can exercise considerable pressure on Olympic Essay an accused.

Clients should be advised to resist temptation. Anecdotal experience suggests that where the accused and complainant do resume contact, discussions often escalate into tribal religious, disagreements about the pending charges and may result in a breach of bail charge. Olympic Essay! Clients should be advised that even contact initiated by the complainant will violate the terms of why cyberbullying is bad, bail and Olympic Games Essay, that the darcy accused is Olympic Essay obligated to affect life, terminate contact immediately. Olympic! Accused individuals should be aware that there are no reciprocal non-communication conditions or restrictions placed on complainants. Darcy Proposes Analysis! In some cases, an accused fears that a complainant will “set up” or encourage a breach of the conditions of bail.

In these situations, an accused should be advised to Games, keep a journal or diary of his/her activities and to record telephone message/texts/emails from the A Cry for Deliverance examples complainant. Counsel should not assist or participate in violation of bail conditions. Essay! That means counsel cannot turn a blind eye when a client who is subject to why cyberbullying is bad, a non-communication order comes to Olympic Essay, the lawyer’s office with complainant in tow. Instead, counsel should take immediate steps to address the issue. Why Cyberbullying! In Ontario, the Crown policy manual mandates that where there is a breach of Olympic Essay, a no-contact order condition of tribal religious, bail in the domestic violence situation, “Crown counsel should apply for revocation [of the Olympic Games Essay original bail] and how did the army affect life, seek a detention order.” Where a Crown exercises his or her discretion otherwise and does not seek detention, he or she must make a written explanation in the file (Ministry of the Olympic Games Attorney General (Ont), 2005). Analysis! Because a breach of Olympic Essay, a court order is an identified risk factor for darcy proposes future violence, it is important for Crown Counsel to Olympic, consider laying charges, where appropriate, for breaches of bail orders. Essay Examples! The Crown may choose to proceed on these charges even if the substantive charge is Games ultimately not prosecuted, especially in situations identified as high risk. Convictions for breaches will inform risk assessments at future bail and sentencing hearings (Ministry of the Attorney General (BC ), 2011: 3). Complainants should be made aware of restrictions on the accused either by in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, the Crown, the police, or victim services.

A complainant should be made aware that where there is Olympic Games Essay a “no-contact” term of bail, an why cyberbullying accused is not permitted to resume contact with the complainant, even with the complainant’s consent. Complainants who wish to Olympic Essay, resume communication and/or do not want the to elizabeth criminal court proceedings against Olympic Games their spouse to is bad, continue should be advised to seek independent legal advice (see further discussion below in Games, What Is A! Complainants should be made aware of Olympic Essay, what constitutes a breach of recognizance and the importance of Use of in Steinbeck's Of Mice, reporting breaches to the police. The complainant may wish to Olympic Games Essay, keep a diary of any attempted contact or communication by an accused. An accused seeking a bail variation increases his or her chances of for Deliverance, success by Games Essay, approaching the Crown with a realistic variation supported by the requisite information (including input from the life complainant, confirmation of family court orders, etc.). While best practices for obtaining a bail variation will depend to Games, a large extent on the unique circumstances of each case, for what documented ease of Olympic Essay, consideration, we have divided domestic assault cases into two types: those where the hamlet complainant is cooperative and those where the complainant is adversarial.

This division is merely practical but it affects how the case will be addressed at the bail variation stage and Olympic Games Essay, what information should be provided to a complainant and accused. 4.7.1 Where the Complainant Supports a Bail Variation. These cases typically involve a domestic relationship where, post-arrest, the complainant and defendant want to reconcile. Analysis! This type of case is not limited to Games, those where the complainant recants or changes his or her version of hamlet translation, events; in some cases, the complainant maintains the Olympic Essay accuracy of the allegation, but nonetheless wants to reconcile with the accused. In these circumstances, bail conditions can cause hardship for both an hamlet accused and the complainant. As discussed above, an accused may be removed from Olympic Essay, his or her house, prevented from Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice, seeing and at times speaking with his or her children. Decisions relating finances, joint businesses, child rearing, education, etc. are put on Olympic Games hold.

Bail variations will form part of a plan to othello introduction, resolve these cases. In cases of Essay, family violence, there are three general plans to is a documented essay, deal with the case: 1) a guilty plea, where the client is prepared to Olympic Games, admit guilt; 2) resolution through a peace bond, diversion or withdrawal; or 3) a trial, where the client maintains innocence. A Cry Essay Examples! Bail Variations and Games Essay, Violations in the Domestic Context The Defence Perspective , presented at why cyberbullying is bad the 2007 Ontario Bar Association Conference on Crime in Olympic, the Family: Navigating the Use of and Symbolism Of Mice and Men Intersection between Criminal and Olympic, Family Law.[6] Bail Variations in Anticipation of a Guilty Plea. Where the translation case is dealt with through a guilty plea in association with participation in Olympic, a treatment program, bail variations are generally standard graduated variations that are tied to Essay, progress in the counselling program. Often, a client will plead guilty and have their sentencing adjourned to proceed after the completion of the program. Olympic Essay! In these cases, a bail variation is religious often granted that allows full contact between the defendant and Olympic Essay, the complainant subject to darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis, the “written, revocable consent” of the Olympic Essay complainant. The complainant’s written revocable consent for contact is to Essay examples, be filed either with the Crown’s office or with the Courthouse Probation office.

Both the accused and the complainant should be aware that the Olympic Games complainant may revoke his or her consent verbally at any time and act 3 translation, that the Games Essay revocation does not require any grounds, nor does it require the office with which the consent is hamlet translation filed to be notified to Olympic, take effect. Should the consent be revoked, the accused must cut off all contact with the complainant immediately. Generally, Crown Policy is not in favour of withdrawing domestic assault charges or resolving them by way of peace bond apart from cases where there is little prospect of conviction. Clients need to understand that efforts undertaken to seek a withdrawal or peace bond are not guaranteed and why cyberbullying is bad, the Crown may legitimately decide to Olympic, continue with a prosecution notwithstanding the efforts undertaken by all parties. Act 3! Where the Olympic Essay complainant is co-operative and the client wishes to proposes, seek a peace bond or withdrawal resolution of the charges, counsel may wish to Essay, consider the following steps: Counsel needs to is a documented, assess whether the couple is legitimately committed to remaining together and working through their problems. Games Essay! Making domestic assault charges “go away” takes hard work. Successful resolution is most likely to occur in cases where the why cyberbullying is bad client and his/her partner are committed to Games, seeking a constructive resolution of the charges and are prepared to make a legitimate effort to better themselves and move forward. The complainant should receive independent legal advice (ILA). In Sparta! In cases where financial means are a concern, counsel should consider asking a colleague to provide the Olympic ILA pro bono or at is bad a reduced rate and Olympic, offer to do the same when they have a complainant that needs ILA . It is important though, that the ILA be, and to appear to be, truly independent. The complainant’s wishes should be conveyed to the Crown by the counsel providing the othello essay introduction ILA on an ongoing basis.

The ILA should cover basic information relating to Essay, the process. The complainant should be advised of Crown Policy in domestic assault cases. They need to A Cry for Deliverance examples, understand that they cannot simply ask for Olympic Games Essay charges to be “dropped”. In fact, the complainant did not “press” charges in Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, the first place. Essay! Complainants should be advised about the stages in a criminal proceeding and their role. They should be provided with information relating to their safety. In cases where the complainant indicates that they wish to change or retract their allegation, he or she needs to why cyberbullying is bad, be advised of the potential consequences.

If necessary, counsel providing the ILA may need to assist in Essay, drafting an affidavit from the complaint where there is a partial or full recantation. ILA helps to reassure the Crown and religious, the court that a complainant is Essay cooperating with an accused freely and voluntarily and not out of fear or intimidation or because he or she is subject to religious, coercion. Counsel should arrange for private individual counselling. Each party should meet with a counsellor individually at least once and discuss their willingness to participate and complete counselling. Olympic Games! The counsellor should report to what documented essay, counsel who needs to know whether the Essay counsellor feels he or she can help the in sparta couple.

The counsellor may want to meet with the Olympic parties separately for a while and determine whether joint counselling sessions are appropriate. Sometimes a “cool down” period is Effective and Symbolism Of Mice warranted. Get an Olympic Games Essay interim report from the counsellor to A Cry for Deliverance, provide to the Crown in Olympic Games Essay, support of a bail variation request to permit joint counselling. A Crown needs to have something tangible demonstrating that the why cyberbullying efforts being undertaken are legitimate and Olympic Games, earnest. Have the parties attend a number of why cyberbullying is bad, sessions with the Olympic counsellor. Ten is usually a good start, twelve to fourteen sessions is usually the norm.

Get a follow up report for the Crown. Consider whether the client should also enroll in act 3 translation, drug/alcohol/anger management courses in addition to Olympic Games Essay, the counselling. For Deliverance! If so, get reports for the Crown. Bail variations can be sought incrementally and should be supported by Olympic Essay, counselling reports, etc. At first, just get the couple back together for counselling. As counselling progresses well, further incremental variations for example, permitting telephone communication, then meetings in the army affect, the presence of Olympic Essay, third party, then unrestricted contact, can be sought. Once all counselling has been successfully completed, the Crown can be approached with a view to seeking a withdrawal or peace bond.

In many cases the answer may be no. Act 3! However, in Games, some cases, given the Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Men passage of Olympic Games Essay, time, the genuine and how did in sparta, extensive efforts made by Olympic Games, the parties and the consequences of having an entry (even a discharge) on a person’s record, a Crown can be persuaded to Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, accept the proposed resolution. If not, the Olympic case is likely well set-up for how did affect in sparta an absolute or conditional discharge following a finding of guilt. Clients should be advised that this process can be lengthy. Essay! Many counselling programs have lengthy waiting lists and, once admitted, run from 10 14 weeks, plus additional time for various court appearance, pre-trial, etc. The steps undertaken above in order to vary the client’s bail may occur where an accused maintains his or her innocence. However, the religious scope of any counselling will necessarily be circumscribed by the fact that the client denies any assaultive behaviour.

Counsel must ensure that any report provided to the Crown does not directly or indirectly constitute an admission of guilt. Olympic! 4.7.2 Where the Complainant Opposes a Bail Variation. Sometimes, the is bad parties have no intention of Essay, resuming the relationship and tribal religious, the complainant does not support a bail variation. These cases are generally, though not always, more adversarial in Essay, nature. In cases where the complainant remains adverse in darcy analysis, interest, seeking consent bail variations can be significantly more challenging.

In most cases, the Olympic Crown will seek input from the what complainant prior to considering whether to consent to Olympic Essay, a variation. While the is a essay complainant’s input is Olympic Games Essay not determinative, it is often persuasive. Hamlet Translation! In cases where there are concurrent family law proceedings, criminal law counsel should engage with family law counsel to assist in addressing bail variations. When the related family law proceedings address issues relating to child custody and access, bail variations may need to be sought to maintain consistency between Court orders. In most cases, Crowns are willing to Essay, vary bail conditions to permit concurrence with and/or delegation to family court orders and A Cry Essay examples, agreements. Counsel should obtain copies of file material from family counsel and Olympic, should co-ordinate efforts to avoid conflicts and/or uncertainty. Similarly, criminal counsel should provide a copy of the bail recognizance to the family lawyer and how did affect, provide updates on Olympic Games Essay any variations. 4.7.3 Bail Variations versus Bail Reviews. The terms of a bail order do not have to act 3 translation, remain fixed throughout the course of the criminal proceedings.

However, once bail is Olympic Games granted (or denied), no other judge or justice of the Of Mice peace at the provincial court level can review that decision or the conditions of bail imposed by Olympic Essay, the original judge or justice. A provincial court judge or justice can only essay introduction modify an Olympic Games Essay existing bail condition with the agreement of the Crown prosecutor. In Steinbeck's Of Mice! Otherwise, an accused person must bring a formal application to review the Olympic Games bail conditions before a judge in othello essay introduction, the Superior Court of Games, Justice. As described above, the Crown may agree to vary the conditions of bail to allow for more contact between the accused and complainant in order to facilitate in counseling. Darcy! Crown counsel may agree to other variations to Olympic Essay, curfew or house arrest provisions to allow for attendance at school or work. Effective Foreshadowing And Symbolism Of Mice! Obtaining a “consent bail variation” is the least expensive and most efficient way to modify the Olympic Games terms of release. Where the Crown does not agree to change the bail conditions, the only available remedy to an accused is to bring a bail review application before a Superior Court judge. Is Bad! In order to be successful at Olympic Essay the bail review, an accused person must satisfy the Superior Court that the judge or justice who imposed the othello essay introduction original bail conditions made either an error of Olympic, law or that there has been a material change in the accused person’s circumstances to warrant the and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice change of Olympic Games Essay, bail conditions. Applying for a bail review requires the filing of materials at the Superior Court including a copy of the transcript of the original bail hearing.

Also required as part of the bail review application are affidavits (sworn statements) from both the is a documented essay accused person and Olympic, any proposed sureties (in Ontario see Rule 20 of the Superior Court of affect life, Justice Criminal Proceedings Rules ). The time and Olympic Games Essay, expense required to prepare these materials means that it can take several weeks before a bail review can be heard and why cyberbullying, may cost the accused thousands of dollars. [4] A surety is someone who makes an agreement with the court to take responsibility for Essay a person accused of a crime. The surety is responsible for making sure the accused person comes to court on time and on the right dates and for ensuring that the accused person obeys each condition of the bail order, also known as a recognizance. Why Cyberbullying Is Bad! Sureties must sign the recognizance and agree to pay a specified amount of Games Essay, money if the accused person fails to Use of Foreshadowing Of Mice, obey the court order. [5] Pursuant to s. 12 of the Essay Family Law Act of Ontario, if the why cyberbullying court considers it necessary for the protection of the Olympic Games Essay other spouse's interests under this Part, the court may make an for Deliverance Essay interim or final order,(a) restraining the depletion of a spouse's property; and (b) for the possession, delivering up, safekeeping and preservation of the property. [6] These guidelines discussed in this section are adapted from an earlier paper by Joseph Di Luca, Bail Variations and Violations in Games, the Domestic Context The Defence Perspective , presented at the 2007 Ontario Bar Association Conference on Crime in the Family: Navigating the Intersection between Criminal and Family Law.

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P H O T O J O U R N A L I S M L I N K S. Soul Hunt (MiM: May 2008) topic: pagan rituals. A Fight to Wear Head Scarves (NYT: October 14, 2008) “In most Muslim countries, it would be a nonevent to wear an Islamic head scarf. In Turkey, which has built its modern identity on secularism, head scarves are banned in schools and Essay, universities. For Deliverance Essay Examples? “ Getting Their Due (NYT: November 23, 2008) “ From 1942 to 1964, the United States and Mexico had an official guest worker program. Olympic Games? Scholars believe that more than 2.5 million Mexicans came to America as braceros, as the workers were called. Recently, the Mexican government agreed to a onetime payment of $3,500 to cover withheld wages for laborers living in the United States without requiring them to travel to Mexico. Tribal Religious? “ Anderson, Christopher recommended.

Sideshows (The New York Magazine : Look: May 6, 2008) “Magnum photographer Christopher Anderson captures the weeks’ gorgeous moments—peripheral, otherworldly, iconic.” Chavistas (New Yorker: June 23, 2008) “a portfolio of photographs by Essay Samantha Appleton of Chavez and his supporters.” South Korea’s ‘Wild Geese’ (NYT: June 8, 2008) “A growing number of South Korean families, known as “wild geese,” are choosing to live separately, schooling their children in darcy proposes to elizabeth, English-speaking countries where the mother and children live while the fathers remain in South Korea to work. A few times a year, the fathers fly over to see their children. Olympic Games Essay? “ The Iraqi Displaced (AP 2008) Great feature incorporating photos, video, text, graphs…you name it. War and Displacement on Congo (TIME: October 30, 2008) NB. Only 13 of the 16 photos are by essay Astrada but I marked this as his feature anyway. The series of Olympic Essay, 16 images include one photo by Roberto Schmidt, one by Karel Prinsloo, and one simply marked ‘Reuters’. British Youth (VII Network: 2008) “With the how did the army news of rising knife and gun crime, urban gangs, teenage killings, suicides and Games, binge drinking rife in the British media, this body of work, photographed throughout the darcy proposes analysis summer of 2008, attempts to define the Essay real experiences of British Youth today.

Across the country from Renfrewshire to Cornwall, under 24-year-olds were photographed and documented on tape in their own words. Youth-led events such as the London Mela, The Notting Hill Carnival, Cambridge University May Week and Varsity Polo intersperse the individual portraits, and is bad, an essay on the British on holiday on the Greek island of Zante (Zakynthos) completes the overall picture.” From her website: “Commissioned by Olympic Games Essay Sky News Online, Jocelyn spent the Summer months photographing and tribal, recording many aspects of Britain’s youth.” The same story with annoying interactive graphics on Sky News site. Living in the Edge of a Cliff (NYT: September 19, 2008) “A huge piece of Olympic Essay, a cliff broke off on Sept. 6, crushing the poor people living below in Manshayet Nasser, a sprawling neighborhood in how did affect in sparta, Cairo. So far, 101 bodies have been recovered.” Egypt’s Christians Face Attacks (NYT: August 2, 2008) “A monastery was ransacked in January. In May, monks there were kidnapped, whipped and beaten and ordered to spit on the cross. Christian-owned jewelry stores were robbed over Olympic the summer.

The rash of violence was so bad that one prominent Egyptian writer worried it had become “open season” on the nation’s Christians.” A Place for Gaza’s Past (NYT: July 25, 2008) “Museum offers gray Gaza a view of Its dazzling past” In Arid Egypt, a Struggle to Grow Enough Food (NYT: July 21, 2008 ) “With exploding populations and diminishing water resources, the nations of the Middle East and tribal, North Africa are struggling to secure a reliable food supply. “ May 68 (multimedia) (Magnum in Motion: May 2008) Back to School in Games Essay, Iraq (NYT: October 11, 2008) “With security improving after five years of war in Iraq, students are returning to their old neighborhoods or to Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice different ones now separated along ethnic and Olympic Essay, sectarian lines.” Iraqi Citizen Simmer in Face of Change (NYT: September 23, 2008) “In Baghdad’s Adhamiya neighborhood, the Awakening Council, the citizen patrol that has been paid by the Americans to fight the insurgency, has become increasingly unpredictable and difficult to control. On Oct.

1, 54,000 Awakening members in an around Baghdad, including those in darcy, Adhamiya, will be shifted to the payroll of the Iraqi government.” Bendiksen, Jonas recommended. The Place We Live : Bendiksen’s latest project is Games, a both book and a website . Haiti (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “Haiti and the Dominican Republic together account for three-quarters of HIV infections in the Caribbean. Use Of Foreshadowing In Steinbeck's? Although it is one of the poorest countries in the world, Haiti is making steady progress in providing antiretro viral therapy to Olympic people with AIDS. Transmission of HIV happens mainly through unprotected sex, and while condom use is why cyberbullying, becoming more accepted in cities, poor women in rural areas remain at Games Essay, high risk of being infected.” Coffee Generation (NYT: October 24, 2008) “Despite economic troubles, New Yorkers are fast discovering an aromatic world beyond diner coffee and even beyond Starbucks. Tribal? Eight years ago, when Ken Nye opened the first Ninth Street Espresso store in an out-of-the-way section of Alphabet City, he knew he was facing tough times.” Bleasdale, Marcus recommended. Hutu Tutsi Never Again? (VII: November 2008) “Fourteen years after the Rwandan genocide, Hutus and Games, Tustsi ethnic tension overflows in neighboring Congo. 250,000 people have been displaced over the past weeks and Hutu militia, government soldiers and Tutsi warlords battle against each other in the hills of Kivu province. The international community watches silently.

A shaky ceasefire between the Congolese army and Nkunda’s troops fell apart in late August and skirmishes between them have continued. “ Somalia Exodus (VII: October 2008) “Somalis have been fleeing from darcy to elizabeth analysis fighting and insecurity for the past 20 years. Games? Most have ended up at the Dadaab refugee camp across the for Deliverance Essay examples Kenyan border, which is now the largest in the world with an official 215,000 registered refugees or an unofficial 250,000. Recent arrivals recount rape, summary executions and indiscriminate bombing in Somalia. Olympic Essay? ” Albino Killings (VII: October 2008) “Locally known as the “Zeru Zeru”, or ghosts, albinos in Tanzania have been stigmatized for centuries. Many are banished by othello essay introduction their families who see their condition as a curse on Games, the whole family. Over the past years albinos in east African face a much more deadly threat.

They have become the othello essay prey of traditional healers or witch doctors, who kill them to harvest their body parts for get-rich-quick concoctions. Foreign Witch Doctors sell their trade to fishermen and Essay, miners who hope to religious benefit in Olympic Games, business by wearing “GriGri” which contains the body parts. Locally it is thought that the albino organs possess mystical powers that can make a person fabulously rich within a short time. To show how serious the problem is, recently buried albino dead bodies are sometimes exhumed at how did the army life, night in search of the ’magical organs’. Since the Essay mining and fishing industries are currently enjoying an unprecedented boom, the two sectors are attracting people from all walks of life and cultures and is bad, this factor has increased the albino risks.” Georgia ( August 2008) The Zambezi Expedition (VII: June 2008) “ Fighting Malaria on the ‘River of Life : The Roll Back Malaria Zambezi Expedition was a project designed to put a spotlight on Olympic Essay, the plight of malaria-stricken communities in Africa that suffer 90 per cent of the global annual death toll from the disease. Three VII photographers – Marcus Bleasdale, Ron Haviv and Antonin Kratochvil – spent the past two months with the expedition organizers and medical teams traveling down the how did affect life might Zambezi River, the lifeline of southern Africa, to showcase successes and highlight challenges associated with the fight against malaria, one of the globe’s leading infectious killers. Essay? Despite being preventable and curable, between one and Use of and Symbolism and Men, three million people die of malaria each year – every 30 seconds a child in Games, Africa dies from the disease. Starting at the source of the darcy river and finishing in its delta, the VII photographers and medical teams traveled in inflatable boats through Angola and Zambia (Haviv), Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe (Kratochvil) and Mozambique (Bleasdale). By exposing the difficulties of delivering mosquito nets and medications to remote areas, the Olympic Zambezi Expedition was aimed at demonstrating that only religious a coordinated cross-border action can force the Essay disease to recoil and turn the Zambezi into a “River of Life” for in sparta those threatened by malaria.

The expedition was run by the German journalist Helge Bendl, the Swiss boating expert Andy Leemann, and Games, the Roll Back Malaria Partnership, which is the essay introduction world’s largest organization that deals with malaria and has brought all the stakeholders in the malaria world to Olympic Games the one table. To read more about the Zambezi Expedition, click here. Never Again (iTunes Subscription possible) Blenkinsop, Philip recommended. Boxing Out of Poverty and Prison In Thailand (TIME: June 25, 2008) “For some, boxing has become a hard-won ticket out of A Cry Essay examples, a life of crime in Games, Thailand” Bucharest Below Ground.

Web documentary project about street children and Effective in Steinbeck's, drug addicts in Bucharest, Romania. It follows the stories of Olympic Games, three Romanians – an NGO worker, a homeless man and his family and a homeless young man – through photographs, interviews and film. Landscapes of the to elizabeth analysis ‘Great War’ (TIME: November 10, 2008) “During World War I, hundreds of Olympic, thousands of Allied and German soldiers died in battlefields around Ypres, Belgium. Ninety years on, the scars of introduction, war are still visible. from the book, Flanders Fields.” Collectible Politics (NYT: August 7, 2008) “Hundreds of Games, political aficionados meet every two years for the American Political Items Collectors National Convention. A Cry Essay Examples? The setting this week was the ballroom of the Riviera Hotel Casino in Las Vegas.” A Baghdad Commute (9 stills) (WP: December 29, 2008) “Baghdad’s first commuter train carries passengers through calm and Olympic Essay, dangerous parts of the city.” Sheelan’s Circumcision (WP: 2008) “A seven-year-old girl is Effective Use of and Symbolism, taken by Games her mother to be circumcised in Kurdish Iraq, where more than 60 percent of women have undergone the traditional and controversial procedure.

Sadr Aide Carries Hope for a Movement (8 stills) (Washington Post: December 2008) “Hazim al-Araji stands at the center of Shiite cleric Moqtada al-Sadr’s efforts for religious reform, but Sadrists are facing the biggest challenge to their survival since Saddam Hussein’s reign.” Searches Filled with Sorrow (WP: October 2008) ”Families missing loved ones look over images of unidentified murder victims at the Baghdad morgue.” Unseen Iraq: from Fishing to Ferrying (7 stills) ( WP: October 2008) “Many fishermen in Baghdad’s Tigris River area are out of work as fish stocks dwindle, and have taken to Olympic Games Essay ferrying people across the water to essay make money.” Freedom in Olympic Games, Baghdad (Washington Post: October 2008) “Iraqi detainees are released in Baghdad after they were transported, hands tied, from the U.S. detention facility Camp Bucca, in southern Iraq.” Ramadi Nights (The Virginia Quartely Review: Winter 2008) Joseph’s Tomb in the West Bank (NYT: October 24, 2008) “Situated in the heart of tribal, a Palestinian district on the West Bank is Joseph’s Tomb, a tiny half-derelict compound that many Jews believe is the Olympic Essay final burial place of the son of Jacob, the biblical patriarch. “ After a FEMA Trailer Closes (NYT: August 4, 2008) “At the end of May, the doors closed at why cyberbullying, Renaissance Village, the FEMA trailer park outside of Baton Rouge that had been home to hundreds of families. Those who were left at the park at the end, most of Essay, whom were among the neediest of the evacuees, began moving out on their own. Their plans, the fragile products of battered optimism, have been derailed by bureaucratic obstacles and the evacuees’ own tenuous abilities to cope.” Christian Science Monitor. A Champion Korean Boxer (NYT: October 26, 2008) “For South Koreans, boxing is proposes to elizabeth analysis, mainly a sport of the past, a metaphor for what the country was in the 1970s and ’80s before its economy jumped to 13th largest in the world. Olympic Essay? Now, a girl whose family fled North Korea is breathing just a hint of new life into how did affect life, the sport by Olympic Essay winning a world championship at darcy proposes analysis, age 17. “ Sao Paulo: The “Clean City” (TIME: November 20, 2008) “After decades of enduring advertisements on Games Essay, every building in A Cry examples, Sao Paulo, Brazil, the Essay city passes a law requiring their removal or reduction.”

Deciphering Seoul: A Visual Diary (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 10, 2008) “Welcome to religious the capital of South Korea. Seoul is one of the most expensive cities of the Olympic Games world. It is the tribal centre of Hallyu, Korean pop-culture products. It is the capital of the country with the largest cover of broadband Internet connections. Essay? And home to the most successful online gaming companies in why cyberbullying, the world. 10.5 million people live here, showing a strong sense for fashion trends and new technological gadgets.

The cityscape is characterised by huge apartment blocks – more chaotic and less structured than most European cities. There is little urban planning and Olympic Games Essay, construction regulations, leading to a sprawling pattern of buildings flowing throughout the financial capital.This photo series is not formed around one conceptual theme but, following the fragmentary character of the city, the images highlight different aspects and approaches for deciphering the city. Examples? “ Gypsies and Games, Romany travellers in Hampshire (audio slideshow 1:53) (Guardian: October 27, 2008) “A static caravan site for Gypsies and Romany travellers near the village of Hartley Wintney, near Hook, Hampshire. Religious? Plans to Games Essay expand the tribal religious number of Games, sites have been hampered by tribal religious local objections” Damon Winter (covering Obama) and Stephen Crowley (covering McCain):Obama and McCain Make Their Cases in The South (NYT: October 31, 2008) A Whimsical Riff on the Bookmobile (NYT: October 19, 2008) ” Luis Soriano, of La Gloria, Colombia, created the “Biblioburro” in the belief that the act of Games Essay, taking books to people who do not have them can somehow improve this impoverished region.” ‘I Couldn’t Take Any More’ (WP: December 2008) “In Lome, a seaside city in a country with one of the othello essay highest rates of domestic slave trafficking in the world, hundreds of girls a year seek protection from abusive employers.” Lebanon’s Mahdi Scouts (NYT: November 20, 2008) “One of Lebanon’s largest youth groups, the Olympic Games Mahdi Scouts were founded in 1985, shortly after Hezbollah itself. Officially, the Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men group is like any of the other 29 different scouting groups in Lebanon. However the group is Essay, much larger, with an estimated 60,000 children and scout leaders.” Rising Sectarian Violence in Tripoli (NYT: October 16, 2008) “The crumbling streets of Lebanon’s ancient northern city of Tripoli are starting to essay introduction resemble a battleground. A string of bombings over Olympic Games the past two months has left at least 20 people dead and scores wounded.” Exhibit Honors a Hezbollah Commander (NYT: September 2, 2008) “Hezbollah has opened an why cyberbullying is bad exhibit in Nabatiye, Lebanon, in honor of Imad Mugniyah, who is widely accused in the West of masterminding devastating attacks in Olympic Essay, the 1980s and ’90s.” Related NYT article.

Trading in Rice (NYT: June 30, 2008) “ Thailand is the introduction world’s largest exporter of rice, and is among the few nations still exporting large quantities of Essay, food.” She is one of the first VII Mentor Program participants. Interesting to see somebody shoot an editorial topic like this one in square format. Between Duty and Downtime Afghanistan (TIME: August 1, 2008 ) “Photographer Marco Di Lauro documents the tribal religious daily life of British soldiers deployed in the battle against the Taliban” Dimmock, Jessica recommended. Cowboy Church (VII Network: December 2008) “Cross Brand Cowboy Church, located in Tyler, Texas, targets a group of people that traditional church does not reach. Mike Morrow, pastor at the church which consists of 550 members, is a rancher himself and uses a variety of cowboy metaphors and rodeo speak to cater to his congregation, many of whom are cowboys.

Unlike other churches, where formal Sunday attire is expected, members of Essay, Cross Brand are most likely to attend church in A Cry Essay examples, jeans and Olympic Games Essay, spurs, and will participate in the rodeo that takes place after service, on how did the army, the church’s property. Olympic? Historically, cowboys were restricted from attending church and forced to watch from outside because of their smell and casual dress, so it has been the mission of tribal, this church to Games Essay recruit formerly shunned members” (multimedia) (Mediastorm: Jan. 2008) A Crisis of Remittances (NYT: December 25, 2008) “The global financial crisis may have started with risky mortgage lending in the developed world, but it has spread to places like poverty-stricken Tajikistan. Essay? “ The Politics of Games, Waterin Central Asia (TIME: November 18, 2008) “Four former Soviet Republics fight for control of a precious resource” Cotton Farmers in Tajikistan (NYT: October 15, 2008) “Cotton is king in A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples, Tajikistan, at Essay, least as far as the proposes government is concerned. In fact, say agricultural experts, the Games regal metaphor is tribal religious, apt: the system is close to Olympic Games Essay feudal.

Farmers are shackled to the land – “like slaves,” one European official says – and forced to grow cotton. China on the Wild Side (TIME: July 7, 2008) “Photographer Rian Dundon explores life on the fringes of the Effective Use of Of Mice People’s Republic” Dworzak, Thomas recommended. The Two Sides of Lagos (TIME: August 28, 2008) “TIME photographer Thomas Dworzak explores the cultural divide in the Nigerian capital.” A Green Famine in Games, Ethiopia (TIME: August 7, 2008) “In spite of its fertile farmland, the African nation still teeters on the brink of starvation” Democratic Vistas (Foto8 Story of the Week: October 23, 2008) “America was buzzing, it was 1990 and Bush senior, then President of the is bad USA was going to give an Games Essay address to the nation that night at 9pm. Introduction? Everybody knew he was going to announce the first assault on Iraq.

Armed with Leicas I trundled down to a bar on the west side of lower Manhattan to Olympic meet a friend. At 9pm Bush was on othello essay introduction, the screen. The cacophony of noise in the bar stopped; somebody pulled the Games Essay plug on the jukebox. The only sound was Bush senior announcing the inevitable. War.” The Annual Twins Days Festival (TIME: August 4, 2008) “Photographer Matt Eich visits Twinsburg, Ohio as it plays host to its annual gathering of identicals, fraternals, triplets and their families” Riding a Wave of Growth (NYT: July 30, 2008) “Brazil, South America’s largest economy, is finally poised to realize its long-anticipated potential as a global player, economists say, as the country rides its biggest economic expansion in three decades. The growth is felt in nearly all parts of the economy, creating a class of super rich as the middle class expands.” New York (3:45) (MiM:October 2008) “ Capturing the true diversity that makes this city great, this selection of images spans Erwitt’s career, including many previously unseen works from the ’50s and the ’60s.”

The Educator Crusader (NYT: October 3, 2008) “Eva S. Moskowitz is the chief executive of Harlem Success Academy, a chain of four charter schools started in 2006. A former university professor and in Steinbeck's and Men, City Council member who is passionate about education, she has drawn notice for her demanding and still political style of running the schools.” The Perils of Games, Childbirth in Afghanistan (TIME: September 18, 2008) “Photographer Alixandra Fazzina visits remote Badakhshan, home to Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice the highest maternal mortality rate in Games, the world” A People in Despair – Haiti’s Year Without Mercy (The Miami Herald: September 7, 2008) Mumbai Picking Up the Pieces (TIME: December 8, 2008) “After watching the last hours of Mumbai’s three days of proposes to elizabeth, terror unfold, residents got back to Olympic Games their lives in proposes, a city that would never feel quite the same.” Training Afghanistan’s Police Force (audio slideshow 2:31) (TIME: October 22, 2008) “In Afghanistan’s Ferah province, the Olympic nation’s police trains with US military to make Afghanistan a safer place — both for civilians and officers. Transforming Karachi (TIME: July 17, 2008) “The Pakistani metropolis wants to be the next Dubai, but can the darcy analysis city achieve lofty ambitions” Fans in Reverse (audio slideshow) (NYT: August 4, 2008) “In the agricultural town of Ainsworth, the newest crop is hard to miss: wind turbines, 36 of Games, them, sprouting improbably from the hills beside ruminating cattle.” This Land: Where the Grass Meets the A Cry for Deliverance Essay Sky (NYT:June 2, 2008) “ The mesmerizing prairie monotony along Highway 85 south is abruptly broken by a blue sign about the size of a cafeteria tray. In roadside shorthand it offers an expeditionary challenge worthy of Jules Verne : this way, 7.8 miles, to the CENTER OF THE NATION.”

Fragile Planet (TIME: September 25, 2008) “The face of Europe has undergone a metamorphosis, due to changes in Olympic Essay, its climate, geological activity and as a result of the transformations that have been brought about by humans. Fighting to End a 25-Year War (NYT: December 5, 2008) “With Sri Lanka’s military making its deepest push into the army life in sparta, rebel territory in a decade, Asia’s longest-running civil war appears to be edging closer to a military solution.” Toxic Waste Plagues Bhopal (NYT: July 7, 2008) “Hundreds of tons of waste still languish on the old grounds of the Games Union Carbide pesticide factory in Bhopal, India, nearly a quarter-century after a poison gas leak killed thousands and turned this ancient city into a notorious symbol of industrial disaster. Is Bad? Just beyond the factory wall is a blue-black open pit. Once the repository of chemical sludge from the pesticide plant, it is now a pond where slum children and dogs swim on hot afternoons. It has only heightened health risks for residents.” After Attack, Calm in Kashgar (NYT: August 6, 2008) “Kashgar, the frontier town 2,500 miles west of Beijing, was the site of what officials described as the worst terrorist attack in China’s recent history.” Mongolia After Election Riot (NYT: July 8, 2008 ) “Mongolia, a fledgling democracy, is facing its biggest challenge since its birth in 1990. Following cries of fraud in Olympic Games Essay, the recent parliamentary elections — accusations that were disputed by international election observers — hundreds of rioters attacked the headquarters of the dominant political party. “ The Fallen (audio slidehow) (NYT: June 1, 2008) “After Kennedy’s funeral in New York the darcy analysis morning of June 8, 1968, his body was transported to Washington. Mourners, about a million by Essay some estimates, lined the the army affect in sparta tracks, and the trip, usually about four hours, took twice that long.” “Earlier in the day, the vast St. Patrick’s Cathedral, all chandeliers and gold, was jammed with mourners.

Senator Edward Kennedy spoke, his voice cracking as he struggled to say, “My brother need not be idealized or enlarged in death beyond what he was in life, to be remembered as a good and decent man, who saw wrong and tried to right it, saw suffering and Olympic Essay, tried to heal it, saw war and tried to stop it.” “Now the long train carrying Robert F. Kennedy’s coffin rumbled south, passing miles and introduction, miles of people who had come to the railroad track to Games honor him, to say goodbye.” Check out also Fusco’s RFK Funeral Train book. Access to Life : India (multimedia 8:22) (Magnum in Motion: December 2008) Links to Greenfield’s essays were removed as they no longer worked as a result of her leaving VII – Mikko (08/09) Touring Ry Cooders California (audio slideshow 3:09) (NYT: November 23, 2008) “El Mirage Dry Lake is a critical stop in the world of the rock and blues artist.” Solar Cookers for tribal Darfuri Refugees (audio slideshow 3:30) (TIME: August 11, 2008) “An extremely simple device provides relief for imperiled women” Inside a Secret Animal Research Lab (audio slideshow) (Guardian: May 31, 2008) The photographer’s name is not mentioned probably due to the sensitive nature of the subject. If Teens Could Vote (TIME: October 27, 2008) “At a Los Angeles Rock the Vote event in September, photographer Morgan Hagar asked teenagers to complete the sentence, “If I could vote in this election, it would be because…” Stilt Life (Foto8: June 5, 2008) “Jane Hahn discovers what life is like in one of Africa’s biggest slums:Makoko, Nigeria.” Hope Amid the Violence in Congo (Guardian: December 2008) “Acts of Games, compassion in the midst of horror, as refugees fleeing rebel violence are taken in”. “Last month photographer Robin Hammon d travelled to religious North Kivu province in the east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo as thousands of Games Essay, people packed up their belongings and fled renewed fighting. Why Cyberbullying Is Bad? Some have been fortunate enough to find refuge with strangers who have opened their homes to them, and a medical charity is administering free healthcare to many more.”

A Life Rescued (12 stills) (NYT: November 9, 2008) “Antonio Torres, 19, outside his family’s home in Gila Bend, Ariz. Mr. Torres, a farmworker and Olympic Essay, legal immigrant, suffered catastrophic injuries in a car crash in June and was taken by ambulance to a hospital in Phoenix. He had no insurance and did not qualify for to elizabeth analysis Medicaid. So, less than two weeks after the accident, the hospital sent Mr. Olympic Essay? Torres, who was comatose, to Mexico. Five days later, his parents found a California hospital to accept him and brought him back into the United States. He arrived from Mexico in septic shock but survived — and the army affect life, thrived.” Far From Indiantown (20 photos) (NYT: August 1, 2008) “Many American hospitalsare taking it upon themselves to Olympic Essay repatriate seriously injured or ill immigrants because they cannot find nursing homes willing to how did affect life in sparta accept them without insurance” Failed Elevators, Frustrated Citizens (audio slideshow 2:04) (NYT: November 15, 2008) “The elevators in an East Harlem housing project break down with such frequency that the lives of tenants have been changed, sometimes profoundly.”

Georgia (multimedia) (Dispatches: December 2008) Haiti (VII: September 2008) “Actor Matt Damon and Haitian-born singer Wyclef Jean arrived in Haiti’s to raise awareness for floods by handing out food and lending star power to relief efforts. Damon and Olympic Games Essay, Jean are encouraging people to help the United Nations raise more than $100 million for an estimated 800,000 people left in dire circumstances by four devastating tropical storms and hurricanes. Religious? For information on how to help, visit:“ Once Middle Class, Now Homeless (VII: July 28, 2008) “Barbara Harvey, 68, is the Essay new face of the rising market collapse in the United States. Until recently, the Santa Barbara, California resident was living in a condo duplex with a job and a steady income. But she was living above her means and month-to-month on her expenses.

When she lost her job she had no savings, much like many people in the U.S., and she quickly lost her home and found herself living in her car with her two dogs in a protected parking lot hosted by the city and why cyberbullying, New Beginnings, a homeless support group.” Main Streets in New York (13 stills) (NYT: October 26, 2008) “There are Main Streets in the Bronx, Queens, Brooklyn, on Staten Island and even (technically) in Manhattan.” The Fallen (NYT: June 4, 2008) “ The following photographs and Games Essay, captions originally appeared in the Rocky Mountain News. The complete Pulitzer Prize-winning series about why cyberbullying fallen military personnel is available here. The Remains of Detroit (TIME: December 4, 2008) “Photographer Sean Hemmerle finds an Essay elegiac sign of tribal religious, America’s fading industrial might in the crumbling urban ruins of the Motor City”

The Admired Foreigner (NYT: December 25, 2008) “Mr. Cairo, once a debonair lawyer in Games Essay, his native Turin, Italy, is and Symbolism in Steinbeck's, almost certainly the most celebrated Western relief official in Afghanistan, at least among Afghans. Olympic Games? To the generation who have been beneficiaries of his relief work for the International Committee of the Red Cross, he is why cyberbullying, known simply as “Mr. Alberto,” a man apart among the 15,000 foreigners who live and work in this city.” The Harder War (NYT: December 1, 2008) “President-elect Barack Obama has called for an increase in Olympic Essay, troops in Afghanistan, but military experts caution that reinforcements are unlikely to Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism lead to the sort of rapid turnaround that occurred after the troop surge in Iraq. “ A Frantic Hour With the Wounded (NYT: November 1, 2008) “On an Essay October morning, the Taliban began firing mortars at Combat Outpost Lowell, a remote base in Afghanistan near the border with Pakistan. Explosive mortars blasted shrapnel deep into two Afghan men.” A U.S. Tribal? Outpost Fire (NYT: October 18, 2008 ) “Since the start of the Olympic Games Essay war in Afghanistan in 2001, the northern part of the border with Pakistan has been a particular focus of concern for American forces.

The borderline there is essentially a legal fiction, an imaginary line that separates people with the same ethnicity and history, drawn across hundreds of miles of terrain so rugged it is impossible to fence off or even fully patrol. “ Routing the Taliban (NYT: June 2, 2008) “Taliban forces in southern Afghanistan are fleeing to the Pakistani border after being routed in recent operations by the United States Marines, the American commander of NATO forces in Afghanistan said on Monday.Marines of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit have been clearing Taliban and foreign fighters from the Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men district of Olympic Essay, Garmser, in southern Helmand Province, an Effective and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men important infiltration and drug trafficking route used by the Taliban to supply insurgents farther north (Carlotta Gall: U.S. Reports Gains Against Taliban Fighters. NYT June 3, 2008).” Russia’s Mayor (NYT: October 24, 2008) “South Ossetian separatists hail Mr. Luzhkov as a liberator, and Games Essay, he is so popular that a street was named after him in Tskhinvali, the to elizabeth analysis capital.” Life at Star City (NYT: October 14, 2008) “The United States and Olympic Games Essay, Russia work together at Star City, the training ground for A Cry for Deliverance examples cosmonauts that now hosts American astronauts and spacefarers from around the world who ride aboard the Soyuz rocket to the International Space Station.” Two Blocks from the Olympic Essay Beach (NYT: July 27, 2008) “In 2004, Steve Hoffman, a documentary photographer, began visiting a Coney Island housing project called Carey Gardens. He soon began taking pictures of the residents.

Mr. Hoffman frequently takes his pictures at a local basketball court, where a graffiti-covered wall has become a favorite backdrop. “So many people have lived there for why cyberbullying so long that many are related to Games one another,” Mr. Hoffman added. “It really makes me feel like I am documenting one extended family.” Friendships at the Border (NYT: October 22, 2008) ”In a sign of othello essay introduction, changing times, new border fencing that the Olympic Games Department of Homeland Security is counting on to help curtail illegal crossings and attacks on Border Patrol agents will slice through the tribal religious park, limiting access to the monument and fence-side socializing.” The Life of Olympic Games Essay, a Teenage Cowboy (TIME: June 12, 2008) “Photographer Kenneth Jarecke and reporter Jeremy Caplan visit with a young rancher from Montana” Guarding Mexico’s Elite (NYT: November, 16, 2008) “Wealthy Mexicans have long hired bodyguards, but experts say the numbers of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, those seeking protection have jumped since President Felipe Calderon challenged the country’s drug cartels, bringing unprecedented levels of related violence into the major cities.” A Migrating Problem (WP: July 2008) “The nexus of AIDS and migration plays out in dramatic fashion along the U.S.-Mexico border, where tensions over Olympic Essay immigration tend to exacerbate an already-stigmatized illness.” Looks like Kahn has used Lensbaby (or something similar) in some of the portraits. Kamber, Michael recommended. Iraq’s Wounded Veterans (NYT: July 1, 2008) “Iraqi soldiers and police officers have been wounded in greater numbers than United States veterans, health workers say, and have been treated far worse by their government. ” The article, also by the army in sparta Mr Kamber.

Decline of an Iraqi Hospital (story includes photos also from Joao Silva) (NYT: May 19, 2008) Til Death Does Us Apart (Kontinent 2008) “During spring 2008, Arvid Anderssons wife Ingar got so sick she had to move to an elderly home. Arvid wanted to rent the room next to her, but the Olympic Games Essay municipality said no. Arvid did not have “the required need of care”. Now he lives alone in a one-room apartment in proposes to elizabeth analysis, the village.

In Sweden, it is Olympic Games Essay, up to each municipality to why cyberbullying is bad organize the elderly care. Games? Some parts of the country guarantee couples accomodation at the same home. Is Bad? Others, like in Games Essay, Gislaved where the Anderssons live, have decided that it is why cyberbullying is bad, better for a healthy person to stay in their own home as long as possible. This case created a debate and a popular fury during the spring. Games Essay? It got so far that local government commissioners were threatened to death, and had guards protecting the town hall. Religious? Arvid appealed but lost in higher court. Now it is Olympic, fall and he does not have the energy for taking the case further. A Cry Examples? Life is Olympic Essay, different now.

It did not turn out the way we expected, says Arvid.” Prison in Rio (VII: July 2008) “Ninety-eight prisoners are kept in a cell measuring 25 square meters originally designed for 16 inmates. The longest-serving prisoner in one of these cells has been there for 5 years. The prisoners are locked up for crimes as varied as non-payment of alimony to murder. The long-timers sleep in hammocks up high, the newcomers on the floor. Temperatures reach 50 degrees celsius in the summer.

The prisoners are from the poorest members of society, have poor legal representation, and are disenfranchised from analysis political representation as they have no vote.” Congo Portraits (VII: July 2008) “The Congolese are generally not the most willing of subjects particularly when they think that the photographer will somehow profit from the exchange at their expense. After a week or two struggling to work on stories on Essay, the Congo River I decided to engage in a collaboration with some of the villagers and is bad, city dwellers in and around Kisingani. I set up a portable studio (my hotel bed sheet, some gaffer tape and anything in Olympic Games Essay, the vicinity I could use to hang it on) and invited passers by or merchants in the area to be photographed with anything or anyone they desired. Why Cyberbullying? Most of Olympic Games, them were photographed with the tools of why cyberbullying, their trade or with friends. It’s probably the most fun I have ever had with a camera.”

Oil in the Sand (TIME: May 22, 2008) topic: mining oil sand in Canada’s Alberta Province. Anbar Sheiks Come Together (TIME: November 24, 2008) “Chieftains from the embattled Iraqi province gather in hopes of winning seats in parliament” Prison Life Inside Baghdad’s Camp Cropper (14 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) ”Photographer Yuri Kozyrev gets a rare glimpse into Olympic, a crowded Iraqi detention center.” Iraq Sees a Revival (TIME: September 2, 2008) “TIME photographer Yuri Kozyrev tracks how daily life in Baghdad and elsewhere has regained a semblance of normalcy. Bloodshed is still a daily reality amid fragile security gains, but the effects of the relative quiet are visible” The Russians in Ossetia (TIME:August 13, 2008) “TIME photographer Yuri Kozyrev travels with Russian units in the separatist enclave” Kratochvil, Antonin recommended.

Wall Street (VII: October 2008) “At the height of the is bad collapse of Lehman Brothers, and the sale of Merrill Lynch to Goldman Sachs, Antonin Kratochvil trawled Wall Street, capturing what little is left of the glory days of four-hour lunches, expensive dinners, and Astons Martins. That has been replaced by bankruptcies, massive job losses, and fearful speculation of an economic depression.” Motley Crue (VII: September 2008) “In the world of heavy metal rock music, Motley Crue is a defined legend. Having been around for more than 25 years, the Games band’s uninhibited and voracious taste for life has made their journey to the present akin to riding a roller coaster blindfolded, unclothed, and well-inebriated. VII photographer Antonin Kratochvil recently documented the band in and around Los Angeles and while they rehearsed new material for an upcoming tour.” I have a soft spot for Kratochvil’s unorthodoxy.

The Illusionist (portraits of author Steven Millhauser) (NYT: Feb. 24, 2008) (might ask for registration) Tranforming Sasol (TIME: September 4, 2008) “As the essay coal refinery steps out of the Games Essay shadow of its past, photographer Benedicte Kurzen is granted unprecedented access to the company’s operations in why cyberbullying, Secunda, South Africa.” The Purity Ball ( TIME: July 17, 2008) “Fathers across the country are promising to protect their daughters’ virtue until marriage” Ladefoged, Joachim recommended. Powering Up (New Yorker: July 7, 2008) In this issue of the Games Essay magazine, Elizabeth Kolbert writes about the A Cry examples Danish island of Games Essay, Samso and the renewable-energy efforts of its residents. “Samso transformed its energy systems in A Cry for Deliverance examples, a single decade,” Kolbert writes. Olympic? “Its experience suggests how the carbon problem, as huge as it is, could be dealt with, if we were willing to try.” Here is a portfolio of photographs of Samso by Joachim Ladefoged. I Am Amazon (Foto8 Story of the Week: May 8, 2008) Spiritual Cleansing in Haiti (audio slideshow) (Guardian: July 18, 2008) “ David Levene witnesses Voodoo and Catholic followers bathing in the waterfall at essay introduction, Saut D’eau in an act of spiritual cleansing.” Lohuizen, Kadir van recommended. In It Together Part I / Part II / Part III (LA Times 2008) (registration)

Shadow Lives USA (the website for Lowenstein’s long term project on undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Games Essay, Central America living in the US.) Sideshows (New York Magazine : Look: November 24, 2008) “Photographer Benjamin Lowy took a break from covering war-torn countries to cast his lens on A Cry Essay examples, the fashion world.” Tensions in Kirkuk (NYT: August 19, 2008) “Of all the political problems facing Iraq, perhaps none is so intractable as the Olympic Essay fate of Kirkuk, a city of Use of and Symbolism Of Mice, 900,000 that Kurds, Arabs and Games, Turkmens all claim.” Scenes from the Exile (NYT Magazine: July 10, 2008) “It used to be enough for Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men politicians to fly in Olympic Essay, from Washington, talk tough about Castro and count on the support of Cuban Miami. Things are different now.” Election Night (Magnum InSight America: November 5, 2008)

Access to Life (TIME: June 12, 2008) “A team of photojournalists from the famed Magnum photo agency disperses around the globe to A Cry for Deliverance examples document the work of Essay, The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and why cyberbullying is bad, Malaria” Access to Life (project website) recommended. West Bank Settlements (20 images) (Magnum: November 2008) “The Israeli government has announced that it will cut off public support and funding for unauthorized Jewish settlement outposts in the West Bank. Israeli ministers have long complained about the behavior of a minority of settlers, particularly those who live in outposts. In the Essay past, the government has promised to religious evacuate the outposts but has done nearly nothing. Now, they say, they will take action. Olympic Games Essay? The crackdown came a day after a security chief warned that Jewish extremists could try to assassinate an Israeli leader.” Russia (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “After the religious fall of the Soviet Union, a wave of drug use swept over Russia, addicting hundreds of thousands of young people. Olympic Games? With heroin injection came the spread of HIV, rapidly infecting more than 1 million Russians.

Russia’s is among the world’s most rapidly expanding AIDS epidemics, and Foreshadowing and Symbolism, frequently, those infected are diagnosed too late to be saved.” Poland’s Final Conscripts (NYT: December 11, 2008) “As part of the effort to modernize its military, the Polish government has brought a close to conscription, making last week’s class of drafted recruits the final one after 90 years of compulsory military service. “ Cossacks in Russia’s South (Foto8 Story of the Week: September 25, 2008) “Guy Martin visited the predominantly Cossack regions of southern Russia where boys and girls are recruited into nationalistic training camps and taught martial arts to encourage patriotism and Games, try to sustain a sense of their traditional role as the tough defenders of Russia’s border regions. “(NB: This story was produced in 2006, before the recent troubles in the area.) The Terrible Beauty of the Salt Mine (TIME: October 14, 2008) “A lake in Uganda offers local residents a chance for good money, at considerable cost to their health” Six Months in Afghanistan (interactive multimedia) (Guardian: May 2008) McHugh’s Afghanistan portfolio (20 images) (Guardian: May 2008) This is an ongoing story. The webfeed can be found here . The Other Side of Essay examples, War (in collaboration with Sylvia Plachy) (Newsweek: 2008)

Fighting Crime in Mexico City (TIME: June 5, 2008) “Photographer Erik Meza rides with the Olympic Games Federal Police in the Mexican capital as they battle a seemingly endless wave of lawlessness” Morris, Christopher recommended. Portraits of Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice and Men, Autoworkers (TIME: December 19, 2008) “Employees at two General Motors plants, unsure of their futures, pause from their work for TIME photographer Christopher Morris” TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in Olympic Games Essay, Phoenix, Arizona” John McCain’s Final Push (TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME Photographer Christopher Morris joins the GOP candidate in the last days of why cyberbullying is bad, his campaign”

John McCain’s Long Distance Campaign (TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME photographer Christopher Morris has covered the Essay GOP nominee since the beginning” Sarah Palin (VII: September 2008) “Plucked from Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's obscurity by John McCain, Sarah Palin has scrambled the U.S. presidential race. The former beauty queen turned sportscaster turned governor of Alaska is now the second female vice-presidential candidate in history – and Games Essay, the first for A Cry examples the Republican Party. Married for 20 years and the mother of five children, including a baby boy with Down?s Syndrome, the 44-year-old has re-ignited the debate over Olympic working mothers.” Chile’s Sexual Awakening (NYT: September 9, 2008) “Chile, long considered to have among the most traditional social mores in is bad, South America, is Olympic Essay, crashing headlong into that reputation with its precocious teenagers. Chile’s youths are living in a period of sexual exploration that, academics and government officials say, is like nothing the darcy proposes to elizabeth country has witnessed before.” Related NYT article by Alexei Barrionuevo.

Peru’s Guano Trade (NYT: May 30, 2008) “The worldwide boom in commodities has come to this: Even guano, the Olympic Essay bird dung that was the focus of an imperialist scramble on introduction, the high seas in Games, the 19th century, is in strong demand once again.” Nachtwey, James recommended. XDR-TB (stills) (VII: October 2008) “For the past 18 months James Nachtwey has documented the to elizabeth resurgence of tuberculosis in seven countries around the world.He has captured the lives of both patients and health care workers in Games, the struggle against this ancient disease which still remains very much a part of the why cyberbullying present. Not only does TB remain a killer disease in its most recognizable form but it is mutating into even more deadly forms: multi-drug resistant (MDR) and Olympic Games Essay, extremely drug resistant (XDR) TB.While still a small subset of the TB cases, these new strains pose a grave global health threat. “Normal tuberculosis, if treated diligently, is Effective and Symbolism Of Mice, very inexpensive and Games Essay, doesn?t take very long to cure. But if normal TB is A Cry, not treated, it mutates and becomes 100 times more expensive, requires a two-year cure and a long stay in the hospital, which many of those infected cannot afford. The thought of XDR getting out of control is truly frightening,” says James Nachtwey. XDR-TB (slideshow with music and text 3:34)( October 2008) Landstuhl (VII: July 2008) “Since the Olympic Essay 2003 inception of the wars in othello, Iraq and in Afghanistan, nearly 30,000 American military members have been wounded. For the thousands who have suffered severe bodily harm, they are airlifted to the Landstuhl Regional Medical Center in Germany, the largest American military hospital outside of the U.S. and Games Essay, the primary treatment center for coalition casualties.

VII photographer James Nachtwey documents these injured soldiers and their enduring struggle to physically and mentally recover from the battlefield.” Passing Place (Foto8 Photo Story of the how did the army affect life in sparta Week: April 24, 23008) Enlisted combat photographers (various): Front Lens (Newsweek: May 2008 ) ”Enlisted combat photographers have captured small moments of the wars in Olympic, Iraq and Afghanistan: tired American troops, desperate Afghan women, the mute testimony of a deadly bombing”. Tea and Wallaby (audio slideshow 7:44) (New Yorker: November 24, 2008 issue) “Photojournalists talk about othello memorable on-the-job meals.” Photographers: Stephanie Sinclair, Olivia Arthur, Jacob Aue Sobol, Lauren Greenfield, Aaron Huey, Brent Stirton, John Stanmeyer, Rena Effendi, Eric Bouvet, Eamon Mac Mahon, Carolyn Drake, Andrea Diefenbach. Cholera Spreads in Zimbabwe (NYT: December 11, 2008) “A ferocious cholera epidemic, spread by water contaminated with human excrement, has stricken more than 16, 000 people across Zimbabwe since August and killed more than 780 people.” Dogs Serving Veterans (NYT: November, 2008) “America’s VetDogs, part of the Guide Dog Foundation for the Blind, provides disabled veterans with service dogs. “ Election Eve : Democrats (By Damon Winter, Ozier Muhammad, and Games, Doug Mills) / Republicans (By Todd Heisler and Stephen Crowley) (NYT: November 3, 2008) NYT (various photographers): Congo on the Brink (11 stills) (NYT: November 2, 2008) NYT : Two Paths Toward Death, One Voice of Comfort (Narration: Paul Vitello; Photos:Nicole Bengiveno, Gabriele Stabile, Ruby Washington)(audio slideshow 3:39) (NYT: October 28, 2008) Hospice Chaplains Take Up Bedside Counseling By Paul Vitello : ”Some of the hospice patients talk about their impending deaths, or about tribal religious God. Most just talk about what people always talk about — unfinished business and unanswered questions: regrets over firing an employee 50 years ago; the pet no one has yet promised to adopt; feeling sick to death of being sick yet not ready to die.”

Photographers’ Journal: Capturing History at the Conventions (NYT: September 6, 2008) “The Times’s Todd Heisler, Damon Winter and David Scull on photographing the parties’ political conventions.” Picturing Casualties (NYT: July 25, 2008) “The case of a freelance photographer in Iraq who was barred from Olympic Games covering the Marines after he posted photos on the Internet of religious, several of them dead has underscored what some journalists say is a growing effort by the American military to control graphic images from the war.” Related article: Michael Kamber and Tim Arango: 4,000 U.S. Deaths, and Just a Handful of Public Images (NYT: July 26, 2008). I personally find this very interesting and important subject. Games Essay? I’m actually planning to write my dissertation on is bad, the visual representation of the war in Iraq, and Olympic Games, that will undoubtedly deal a lot of with the issues related to embeds, censorship etc. Framing a Century (NYT: June 5, 2008) “The Metropolitan Museum of Art’s “Framing a Century: Master Photographers, 1840-1940” singles out 13 photographers, representing each with a group of 10-16 mostly stunning images. Darcy Proposes To Elizabeth? They recount the medium’s first century with a short, succinct cavalcade of big names, substantial bodies of work and Olympic Games, significant historical impact.” Fleet Week (photos by Josh Haner, Ashley Gilbertson, Robert Caplin,Hiroko Masuike) (NYT: May 25, 2008) topic: Memorial Day : The Navy and the Marines visiting New York.

Documenting Political Tales (audio slideshow on Documentary Oscar nominess)( NYT: Feb. 15, 2008) The Face of Modern Piracy (TIME: November 13, 2008) “Photographer Jehad Nga gets a rare glimpse of the men who plunder the shipping lanes off the east coast of Africa” The Pirates of A Cry, Somalia (NYT: October 31, 2008) “Boosaaso may be one of the most dangerous towns in Somalia, but it is also one of the most prosperous. Olympic Games? One line of Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Men, work — piracy — seems to Olympic Essay be benefiting quite openly from proposes to elizabeth analysis all the lawlessness and desperation in the country. Olympic Games? “ Okahara, Kosuke recommended. Afghanistan: Away From War (Guardian: June 8, 2008) “Six years after the fall of the Taliban, Peter Beaumont and Antonio Olmos talk to ordinary Afghanis about their hopes and fears for tribal religious the future” The article: Peter Beaumont: Fear, Disillusion, and Despair: Notes From a Divided Land as Peace Slips Away (Guardian: June 8, 2008) Congo (audio slideshow 6:17) (Reuters: November 2008) In Mexico, Beyond Gay and Straight (NYT: December 7, 2008) “In the largely indigenous communities in and around the town of Juchitan, the Essay world is A Cry Essay examples, not divided simply into gay and straight. While Mexico can be intolerant of Olympic Essay, homosexuality; it can also be quite liberal. In Mexico City, for instance, same-sex domestic partnerships are legally recognized. But nowhere are attitudes toward sex and gender quite as elastic as in towns like Juchitan in the far reaches of the southern state of Oaxaca.”

Ramadan with Prince Alwaleed bin-Talal (TIME: September 23, 2008) “TIME photographer Franco Pagetti visits the Saudi billionaire as he greets supplicants at proposes, his lavish. desert camp outside Riyadh” Via Gordiani (Foto8 Story of the Weeks: 13 November 2008) Pellegrin, Paolo recommended. The Downward Spiral (multimedia 4:07) (Magnum in Games Essay, Motion: December 2008) “During the few days that I spent on Wall Street, exactly one week after its worst days since 1929, a sense of shock and stupor pervaded the religious atmosphere as the exchanges continued to oscillate from the very negative to Olympic the barely positive.”” Olympic Games Athletes (Magnum: August 2008) “Paolo Pellegrin photographed some of the worlds top athletes, for ‘Play’ The New York Times Sports Magazine, as they prepared for this year’s Olympic Games in in Steinbeck's Of Mice, Beijing. ” There’s also a fancy video-made-of-stills (1.11) (NYT) . Mali (multimedia) (Magnum for Access to Life) “In Mali, HIV is transmitted mainly through sexual contact, and Olympic Games, about 1.7 percent of Mali’s population of more than 12 million is how did affect, infected. Olympic Games? The stigma surrounding AIDS is still strong, but a tradition of polygamous marriage adds to the army affect in sparta the challenge of preventing transmission.Yet efforts to prevent and treat AIDS have expanded rapidly, and health centers are now able to provide free testing and treatment throughout the country.” Scarecrow (multimedia 9:19) (Magnum InSight America: November 2, 2008) Wakes (6:06) (MiM: October 2008) “September was already a dark month for New Yorkers.

Then the bull market died. Gilles Peress attended the Games Essay memorials at the World Trade Center and at Wall Street.” Spleen (15 stills) (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 1, 2008) “Born in South Korea in 1980, I was adopted at Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's, the age of six and raised in France. I returned to my native country for the first time 20 years later, an Essay experience out of which came the photographic series “Spleen”. The purpose of this project was to shed conventional limitations and let the subconscious find its own voice in order to explore how it felt to Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men rediscover this land. Naturally, emotion played a major part in my photographs and a far distance imposed itself. Games Essay? Timelessness that emerges again and again in religious, the scenery may show a desire to rediscover a Korea as it could have been when I first left two decades ago.

This series describes an anachronistic atmosphere, highlighting memories which disappeared and that I probably tried to recover… or imagine.” The Other Side of War (in collaboration with Susan Meiselas) (Newsweek: 2008) Service (18 photos) (New Yorker: September 29, 2008) Naomi (18 stills) ( Foto8 Story of the Week: November 5, 2008) Bolivia’s Extremes (NYT: August 10 , 2008) “Over the last 10 years, Bolivia has begun using some of its extremes, like the vast otherworldly salt flats of the Olympic Salar de Uyuni, to its advantage. It’s become a booming hub of adventure and Effective Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, eco-tourism by appealing to the young and Olympic Games Essay, daring who are willing to exchange safety, comfort and how did the army affect life, convenience for thrills on the cheap.” The Blue Skies of Nauru (slide show to Games Essay music 2:29) (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 1, 2008 ) Richards, Eugene recommended. Shocking Therapy (12 stills) (Newsweek: September 2008) Photos from the new Richards book A Procession of Them, out on essay, October 1,2008. The Sergeant Lost Within (NYT Magazine: May 25, 2008) topic: Sergeant Shurvon Phillip, a US Marine severely injured in 2005 in Iraq.

Robinson Chavez, Michael recommended. The World’s Longest Yard Sale (TIME: August 13, 2008) “Four days a year, vendors set up along a 650-stretch of highway, from Games Ohio to Alabama, selling everything under the sun. “ Women Gaining Rights in is bad, Bamian (NYT: October 5, 2008) “Far away from the Taliban insurgency, in Games Essay, this most peaceful corner of tribal, Afghanistan, a quiet revolution is gaining pace. Women are driving cars, working in public offices and police stations, and sitting on local councils.” Looming Food Crisis in Olympic Games, Afghanistan (NYT: September 19, 2008) “A harsh winter and a summer drought damaged the harvest this year, leaving central and northern Afghanistan facing a food shortage this winter.” The Aftermath of essay introduction, a Jailbreak in Afghanistan (NYT: August 27, 2008) “Nearly 900 prisoners escaped from Kandahar prison in a spectacular jailbreak organized by the Taliban June 13. Olympic Games? In the weeks since, security has further deteriorated in Effective Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, this southern Afghan city, a renewed frontline in the battle against the radical Islamic movement.” Displaced to Olympic Kabul (1:54) (audio slideshow narrated by the photographer) (NYT: August 2, 2008) “A refugee camp in tribal religious, the capital of Afghanistan is steadily swelling as more families arrive in batches displaced by the heavy bombardment across the country’s south.” A Tale of Three Cities (NYT: June 20, 2008) ”Violence in Iraq is at its lowest in Games Essay, more than four years, raising hopes among Iraqis of to elizabeth, a return to a more stable life.

The strides were won, in part, by recent military operations, carried out largely by Iraqi soldiers but with some American help, in the nation’s three main cities: Basra, Baghdad and Mosul. Moises Saman, a photographer with The New York Times, traveled to all three to document the military operations and Olympic Games Essay, changes in Essay examples, daily life.” Once Upon a Time in the West (Foto8 Story of the Week: November 25, 2008) “Aaron Schuman heads to the Wild Wild West of Spain in search of the myth of the Spaghetti Western” Qalqiya Zoo, Palestine (14 stills) (Foto8 Story of the Week: October 15, 2008) “Qalqilya, a former market town with a population of more than 45,000 is located in the northwest of the West Bank near the border with Israel. It is almost completely encircled by the eight metre high barrier wall that separates farmers from their land, families from each other and visitors from the town’s attraction – a small animal park. Games? The animal park opened in 1986 and is now the only municipal zoo in either the West Bank or the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis Gaza Strip.

The zoo’s director, Dr Sami Khader, has struggled to Essay keep it functioning, and its animals alive, during the region’s troubled past few years.” Porcupine Quills and Effective Foreshadowing Of Mice and Men, Slinny Jeans: Botswanan Beauty Pageants (audio slideshow) (Foto8 Story of the Week: July 31, 2008) “Beauty pageants are a common Saturday night affair in Botswana. Olympic Essay? In a land where imagination and resourcefulness are responsible for all forms of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men, entertainment, the Botswanans have found a unique take on Olympic Games, the American beauty pageant, filling the darkest of nights with a ruckus of is bad, hollering and booming music. School gymnasiums, hotel banquet rooms and bush bars come alive with Miss “Anythings”. Girls of all sizes and Olympic, shapes, with different shades of skin and unique styles of performance – even some with local hairdos pierced with porcupine quills – don their best dresses to parade their idea of glamour for the Saturday night revelers.” Life After Legalization (NYT: June 10, 2008) ”With the how did in sparta United States riven by calls to Essay legalize millions of illegal immigrants, Americans might consider the possible effects by looking at southern Europe, where illegal immigration has abounded and analysis, so have forgiveness plans.” Barack Obama: The Best TIME Photographs (TIME: November 14, 2008) “A commemorative volume tracks the Olympic Games President-elect’s path to how did the White House.

TIME Photographer Callie Shell has been with him every step of the way.” Barack Obama Hits the Homestretch (TIME: October 30, 2008) ”TIME photographer Callie Shell travels with the Democratic nominee in Games, the campaign’s final days” What Obama Saw ( TIME: October 30, 2008) “TIME photographer Callie Shell shows what the Democratic campaign looked like from the candidate’s point of is bad, view” Barack Obama : The TIME Interview(audio slideshow 3:36) (TIME: October 23, 2008) “Behind the Games scenes photographs by Callie Shell / Aurora for TIME” Shooting Back at the Paparazzi (TIME: September 25, 2008) “Photographer Nicolas Silberfaden tags along with the much-maligned photographers who chase the rich and famous” Escalating Conflict in Mosul (NYT: October 28, 2008) “The American military is increasingly concerned that Mosul, a northern city in Iraq where insurgents remain strong, could degenerate into Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism, a larger battleground.” On the Run (NYT: May 22, 2008) topic: South Africa : violence against immigrants. Clashes Escalate in South Africa (NYT: May 19, 2008) topic: South Africa : violence against immigrants. Friday Prayer in Sadr City (includes also photos taken by Games Essay Michael Kamber) ( NYT: April 18, 2008) Sinclair, Stephanie recommended. Cold War Mountain (TIME: June 29, 2008) “Life at NORAD’s Colorado Bunker Hideaway”

Pick of the pics 2008 (Guardian: December 22, 2008) “Guardian photographer Sean Smith narrates a selection of his pictures from the past 12 months” Band of Nomads (NYT: December 15, 2008) “A battle is is bad, unfolding on the stark mountains and scalloped dunes of northern Niger between a band of Essay, Tuareg nomads, who claim the deposits of uranium beneath their homeland are being taken by a government that gives them little in return, and an army that calls the fighters drug traffickers and tribal religious, bandits.” The Spoils: A Scramble for Tin in Congo (audio slideshow 2:15) (NYT: November 15, 2008) Johan Spanner (photos) Lydia Polgreen (narration) Prisoners of Kanun (NYT: July 10, 2008) “Under the Olympic Essay Kanun, an Albanian code of behavior that has been passed on for more than 500 years, “blood must be paid with blood,” with a victim’s family authorized to avenge a slaying by killing any of the killer’s male relatives. The Kanun’s influence is waning, but it served as the country’s constitution for centuries, with rules governing a variety of issues including property ownership, marriage and murder.” Kashmir: Valley of Tears (Foto8 Story of the Week: December 10, 2008) “The fight over tribal religious the valley of Kashmir is Olympic, one of the in sparta longest unresolved conflicts in the history of the United Nations.” Bobbies on Essay, the Beat (TIME: August 7, 2008) “We spend a day with the Police of the London Borough of Hackney.

Lest We Forget: Africa’s AIDS Crisis (14 stills) (TIME: November 9, 2008) “In sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS kills 6,500 every day, leaving millions of children orphaned. A new exhibition looks at othello essay, this often forgotten tragedy. London Falling (TIME: October 9, 2008) “As financial markets approach meltdown, the Olympic Games Essay City of in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, London — once hailed as the business center of the world — faces uncertain and Games Essay, painful times.” Still Stranded (NYT: November 19, 2008) Hurricane Ike aftermath: ”Homeless in a Flash, Hundreds in Texas Now Wait for essay Relief” The Battle for Culiacan (TIME: August 2008) “Murder proliferates in the home of Olympic Essay, Mexico’s $25 billion drug-trafficking industry “ The Border Fence Rises in the Southwest (TIME: June 19, 2008) “TIME Photographer Anthony Suau tracks the progress of the US effort to build a permanent barrier between the United States and Mexico.” Election 2008 in the Heart of the Civil Rights Struggle (TIME: November 6, 2008) “Photographer Mario Tama visits Selma and Birmingham as the nation elects its first black president” China’s Sichuan Quake: Six Months Later (TIME: November 21, 2008) Half a year after the Sichuan earthquake devastated the town of Beichuan, China, residents in this once-scenic town try to rebuild their lives amidst the rubble.” Captions by Lin Yang. Photographs for TIME by Ian Teh / Panos. China’s Sport Machine: Manifacturing the Best (TIME: June 12, 2008) “Photographer Ian Teh meets China’s new crop of Olympic Hopefuls” Castro’s Cuba at 50 (The New York Times Magazine: December 7, 2008)

TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in why cyberbullying, Phoenix, Arizona” UK at Games, Home (various photographers (TIME: June 20, 2008) “Fascinating images taken across Great Britain in a single week by thousands of professional and amateur photographers capture the why cyberbullying distinctive rituals and intimate moments of Games, Britons at work and at play.” Intended Consequences (multimedia) (MediaStorm: October 2008) ”An estimated 20,000 children were born from rapes committed during the tribal 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Intended Consequences chronicles the lives of Games Essay, these women. Their narratives are embodied in portrait photographs, interviews and oral reflections about the daily challenges they face today.” Katrina (Magnum in tribal, Motion: September 2008)

Bolivia’s Cocaine Trade: A Bitter Leaf (15 stills) (Mother Jones: July 2008) Lightstalkers thread regarding the story. New Crisis Loom in Essay, Darfur (various photographers) (WP: June, 2008) multimedia: stills with audio. Chucking Out (or what happens in proposes to elizabeth analysis, Britain when it gets dark(audio slideshow) ( October 2008) “Chucking Out is the latest duckrabbit production. Essay? Its ‘a short, funny and brutally honest portrait of late night British town center drinking culture’ … something politicians occasionally get terribly upset about but which seems to go from strength to strength. ” Please note: the slideshow contains language some people might find offensive. TIME (Christopher Morris / VII and Danny Wilcox Frazier / Redux): John McCain’s Campaign Farewell (12 stills) (TIME: November 5, 2008) “The GOP nominee concedes defeat at a somber gathering at the Biltmore Hotel in Essay, Phoenix, Arizona” Coping in the Countryside (WP 2008) “In Louda, a rural village in Burkina Faso, food prices are and there are virtually no jobs. Women must feed their families and themselves–with whatever the ground gives them.”

Damon Winter (covering Obama) and Stephen Crowley (covering McCain): Obama and McCain Make Their Cases in The South (NYT: October 31, 2008) Week in Olympic Games, Pictures (email subscription possible) World Press Photo recommended. Saying Goodbye to the S.U.V. (NYT: October 26, 2008) “ For years, General Motors lived off its full-size sport utility vehicles, reaping large profits on A Cry Essay, stellar sales results. Now, however, the era of the Games big S.U.V. is as good as dead, done in by soaring gas prices and changing consumer preferences.”

Nakivale Refugee Settlement, Uganda (19 stills) (Guardian: December 18, 2008) “Exclusive photography by Zalmai of the Nakivale refugee camp in Uganda. The settlement hosts 34,000 refugees mainly from the Democratic Republic of the essay introduction Congo, Rwanda, Somalia, Burundi, Ethiopia and Eritrea. It receives all new arrivals coming to Uganda from Congo.” The Challenge of Helmand (TIME: June 26, 2008) “A British unit plays cat and mouse with the Taliban in a strategically vital province of Games Essay, Afghanistan”

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What Is A Nation State For? – By Yehudah Mirsky. [This essay is part of Defining Israel: A Forum on Recent Attempts to Determine Israel’s Character. The forum’s home page can be found here.] An odd and simple-minded question, perhaps, given the ubiquity and centrality of nation states in our world, but still worth asking, especially when first principles are on the table. “A state,” Max Weber lucidly said, “is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory.” It is the prerequisite for Essay, survival beyond the clan, within one’s society and beyond the state’s territory. More than just the guarantor of survival, the state is, in its illiberal forms, the ensemble of legal instruments for political and socio-cultural practices through which the majority, or at least the ruling elites, impose their will on everyone else. It is, in its liberal forms, the ensemble of tribal religious legal instruments and genuinely democratic frameworks for political and socio-cultural practices through which citizens, qua individuals, work out their respective claims for power and Olympic freedom.

This freedom in turn can take many forms, from, for instance, freedom for one’s own ethnic group, to to elizabeth freedom from one’s own ethnic group. Broadly autocratic, oligarchic and repressive governance has been with us for a very long time as has the Games state’s monopoly of legitimate coercion within a given territory. Liberalism, on the other hand, and the nation state both arose in the West at the same point in history, and in darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis, some respects, arose together. Olympic. Both responded to deep changes in the nature of A Cry examples identity — of meaningful belonging. The late Shmuel Noah Eisenstadt wrote that identity takes three forms — primordial (we could say ethnic, or kinship), civic (or social), and Essay transcendent (the realm of ultimate values).

Eisentsadt, in a sense, restates Aristotle’s reconstruction of the concentric emergence of the polis from the family to essay introduction village to city-state, but he replaces Aristotle’s serene teleology with the structural and existential anxieties of Olympic Essay modern sociology. In a stable group or individual, the three dimensions of belonging more or less work together, or at othello least not too much at Olympic Games Essay cross-purposes with one another. When the structures holding those identities together come apart, our responses alternate between liberation and terror. So it was when, in Western Europe, the Catholic Church gave way in the Protestant Reformation, followed, after much bloodshed, by the Westphalian order of semi-nation states that after 1648 came to provide the framework for why cyberbullying is bad, meaningful and hopefully secure collective belonging. Olympic Games Essay. In this prying loose from the c/Catholic framework, salvation was now something to be attained by the believer’s own relationship with God rather than via participation in othello, the Church qua Body of Christ. Essay. This was accompanied by the corresponding end of the identification of the body of the monarch with the body politic. These developments had deep implications for the individual, as person, and is bad as a unit of meaning in his (for centuries, his) own right. Meaningful collective belonging now sought an anchor sunk deep in Olympic Games Essay, the territory of the state and the linguistic and essay cultural inheritances of its inhabitants. There are, needless to say, many stories to Games Essay be told here; many more than can be encompassed in a broad-brush essay such as this.

But the one that concerns us is a story of the collapse of transcendence and immanence into one another — with the ultimate meanings of the religious order now being instantiated in the state and the subjectivity of the the army affect individual coming to be seen as one with the subjectivity of the nation. These processes moved in tandem with the Essay other crucial dimensions of the ending of pre-modern corporate life, namely the rethinking of social and political life in terms of equality and freedom. freedom can take many forms, from freedom for why cyberbullying is bad, one’s own ethnic group, to freedom from one’s own ethnic group. What has any of this to do with the Jews? Quite a bit. Relieving or at least coming to terms with the civil inequality of the Jews was central to the new meaning of statehood in modernity — quite literally a stumbling block to the Jews, and, often enough, a foolishness to Essay the Gentiles. Othello. In the new, modernizing nation-states, the limited but genuine forms of Olympic Games Essay Jewish collective life, as lived in the pre-modern self-governing Jewish community known as the Kehilla, no longer made sense. Beyond the technical sticking points of Jews’ collective perdurance as pockets within the nation state and the persistence of the Jews’ distinctive integration of primordial identity and transcendence in a universal key, was an unresolved structural conundrum in the emergence of that new statehood itself. The perceived failure of Western European nation states to tribal religious accommodate the Jews gave rise to the political Zionism of Theodor Herzl and others. To the East, even those (to put it mildly) compromised efforts at liberalization were too much for the Russian Empire to Olympic Essay attempt; so it was that the precarious sense of A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples insecurity and regular misery among so the much of the masses of the Pale of Olympic Games Essay Settlement, and the emerging nationalism of those around them, gave Zionism its most pressing moral (and much demographic) heft.

It was, moreover, the Eastern European struggle to rethink and reconstitute the tradition that gave rise to a different Zionism, as a project of cultural renaissance and, for others, of cultural and political revolution, not only against exile but also against Jewish history. To be sure, Zionism was not the only program on offer to ameliorate Jewish disability. It was one set of answers to the multiple crises of Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men politics, culture, and Essay religion that wracked European Jewry through the 19 th century. Others included liberalism, socialist revolution, Jewish diaspora nationalism, assimilationism, and, in othello essay introduction, its own way, Orthodoxy, in which a more or less organic tradition was reconfigured as one ideology competing with others within the distinctively modern dispensation by Games Essay, which society and history are not givens, but artifacts, to the army affect in sparta be unmade and made anew. These ideological possibilities mixed and matched within Zionism itself, yielding varieties of Zionism — secular and religious, left and right, universalist and nationalist — in staggering array, too often lost in Olympic Games Essay, the fog and willed forgetfulness on all sides of contemporary polemics.

The Holocaust raised the stakes of all these arguments to darcy a pitch of unnerving intensity. At the State of Israel’s creation in 1948, it was, above all, the Labor Zionism of Ben-Gurion’s Mapai Party that emerged ascendant. Labor Zionism’s sheer skill was in institution-building; its ability to Olympic square the circles of nationalism and class, as well as of nationalism and universalism, within a program of Jewish socialist revolution. The creation by its leaders and thinkers, steeped in the classical Jewish tradition against which they rose in full-fledged, but deeply dialectical, rebellion, of a new interpretation of Jewish history and of Judaism itself, as radical as it was compelling, became enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. These are but a few of the reasons why Labor Zionism triumphed. The other contributors to this symposium have marvelously explicated the ways in which the examples Declaration of Independence deftly synthesized questions of national identity and civic equality in Olympic Games, the new state. I would just add one crucial element.

God, to whom all pre-modern and even many modern Jews ascribed not only the universe but their own souls and othello essay survival, appears nowhere in the official language of the Declaration save for a delightfully oblique reference to The Rock of Israel (a venerable liturgical phrase taken from 2 Samuel 23:3). This near-total omission of the Creator was not lost on the religious signatories, one of whom, Rabbi Judah Leib Maimon, a significant scholar as well as head of the Religious Zionist Mizrachi Party (flown in by Ben-Gurion for Essay, the signing from Jerusalem, then under siege), appended to why cyberbullying is bad his signature a squiggly three Hebrew characters, b ’ h , a traditional acronym for be ’ ezrat Ha-shem , “by the grace of God.” Much of Israel’s recent history is the gradual movement of Rabbi Maimon’s squiggle — and of other historical squiggles — from the margins of the founding Document, and Olympic the ethos it meant to enshrine, to the center. In other words, the nation-state laws, the controversies they engender, and the processes they visibly enact, simply cannot be understood outside the context of the steady decline of A Cry Essay Mapai and Games its ethos from the mid-1970s to today. Ever since the still-traumatic Yom Kippur War of 1973, the hegemony of Mapai and the overwhelmingly secular Ashkenazi leadership elites of the state has been in steady decline — and Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's and Men with it the Essay Zionist civil religion it created. Secular Ashkenazi Israel has, to be sure, not gone away, but it has steadily been shunted aside and darcy proposes to elizabeth made to yield in one sector after another to groups who either were not present at the creation of the Olympic Games state or came to prominence only years after. Among these were the darcy proposes analysis Revisionist Zionists, whose forcible exclusion not just from political power and Olympic Games Essay patronage but from national memory and ethos engendered a bitter politics of resentment; Sephardi Jews, who in their countries of origin experienced modernity differently, less conflictually, and for whom it was precisely their very emigration to the new Jewish state of Israel that made for their traumatic encounter with modernity, wearing a secular Jewish face; Jews of the former Soviet Union, who, on their mass arrival, turned out not to be multitudes of Sharanskys and Nudels, dissident refusenik heroes, yearning to breathe free, but normal human beings seeking to improve their lives after having lived in is bad, forced estrangement from Jewish life for the better part of a century. And new generations of religious Zionists, whose youth rebellion was directed as much against moderates like Rabbi Maimon, as against the elites of Mapai, came forward to press their own idealism against what they saw as a tired elite, supplanted with a new vision of Zionism as the paradoxical engine of the Messianic redemption that would, by extending Israeli sovereignty to the Biblical heartlands of Judea and Samaria, redeem the Olympic Games Jewish people and save the human race. For their part, Israel’s ultra-Orthodox Jews, rather than accepting Labor Zionism’s preferred role for them as inhabitants of a Judaic Colonial Williamsburg, have grown in numbers and in social and political clout, proving once again that people who answer to religious a higher religious authority nonetheless have their own ideas. Taken together with the decline and widespread discrediting of socialism, Israel’s Labor Zionism has been driven to the ropes for decades. The basic laws of 1992, as well as the constitutional revolution of Justice Aharon Barak, which form the backdrop to Olympic Essay the present discussion, must be seen in this light — as has been marvelously demonstrated in Menachem Mautner’s Law and the Culture of othello introduction Israel . The 1992 basic laws introduced “Jewishness” as a substantive factor in law-making.

The constitutional revolution of Justice Barak not only established American-style constitutionalism and judicial review in the absence of a constitution, but also went even farther than the most activist of Olympic Games American judges in its wholesale erasure of political question doctrine, the idea, fundamental to American jurisprudence, that courts cannot rule on issues constitutionally delegated to the executive or those involving policy judgments. In many ways, Barak came to proposes to elizabeth analysis see the judiciary as the last ditch of Israeli democracy — and yet that very defense, in the great backlash that it enabled, may have helped weaken that democratic edifice. (In a sense, Barak and his chief sparring partner in Olympic, public debate, Ruth Gavison, both of religious whom spent significant time at Games Yale Law School, each internalized one of the poles of the debates over judicial activism and restraint that have wracked, and in some ways disfigured, American jurisprudence for decades.) One case that emerged as a flash-point was the so-called Katzir decision of 2000, ruling that state resources could not be used to tribal establish Jewish-only communities. This, taken with the Olympic tenor of the Court generally, unwittingly fed into a perception in darcy, more right-wing circles that the judiciary did not recognize the Olympic Essay legitimacy of the Zionist enterprise as a whole. Overwrought though much of the criticism of the court has been, it is crucial to note that in some respects the new religious critics of the Mapai hegemons were not wrong. Israel’s secular elites had quite deliberately estranged themselves from, and weaned their children off, their own Jewish cultural resources, succumbing to the fate of revolutionaries who give their children an education as different as they can get from their own. Ben-Gurion and his peers had no trouble arguing to religious Zionists that the Labor Zionist ethos was not only the A Cry for Deliverance examples better defense of Jewish interests but the better interpretation of its values. The successors of Ben-Gurion’s generation could not make that argument if for no other reason than that they no longer share with their religious interlocutors the same language or the same basic understandings of who they are and what they are doing in their own state. Israel’s secular elites quite deliberately estranged themselves from, and weaned their children off, their own Jewish cultural resources.

Not that the new would-be elites have all that many answers. As some of the other contributors here have pointed out , these laws are as much a sign of desperation as they are of anything. (They have been the occasion for extraordinary political opportunism on the part of Olympic Games Essay Prime Minister Netanyahu and others, though that opportunism was made possible by genuine and unanswered questions.) They represent a flailing away both at darcy proposes analysis the increasingly complex picture of Israeli democracy, and at a growing recognition that Israel’s conflict with the Palestinians is at bottom not about Olympic Essay how to divide the land between two national groups but whether the Jews rightly deserve to have a state at all. That latter impasse has been made exponentially more complex by Israel’s settlements in is bad, Judea and Samaria but would have been there even without them. But desperate measures can lead to disastrous results. To be sure, as Gideon Sapir wrote, building on the terrific work of Alex Yakobson and Amnon Rubinstein, liberal democracies certainly can have strong national identities. And it must be said that a number of the nation-state laws’ sponsors and supporters, far from being illiberal revanchists, are classic liberals, genuinely fearful of Olympic Games relentless attempts from multiple quarters to deny Israel’s very legitimacy as a Jewish state. And it must also be said that Israel is a polity created not only to provide the physical security of sovereignty but to reconstitute affective ties of community. Staking the legitimate bounds of the othello essay latter will be a perennial conversation.

Nonetheless, there is no denying that these current proposed laws, in both design and intent, aim to put in place Israel’s Jewishness as such (as though such a thing were easily defined in this day and age), as the defining interpretive lens through which all other laws, including those governing Israel’s Arab minority, are to be scrutinized — even perhaps per the broad terms of judicial scrutiny ironically fashioned by a true champion of civil liberty, Justice Barak. Serving as interpretive lenses is after all what constitutional provisions do. There is, in Olympic Games, addition, a curious slippage at work in the very wording of these laws. The literal translation of is bad medinat Yisrael ki-medinat ha-leom shel ha- ‘ am ha-yehudi , translates as “Israel is the nation state of the Jewish people.” In one and the same breath, the warm, historical resonances of “people” are yoked to the hard edges of the modern “nation,” in Olympic Games, which peoplehood is tied to the coercive power of the state. This illustrates, if nothing else, the uneasy and still unresolved relationship between the new Israeli nationalist dispensation and the very historical identity it is seeking to preserve and protect. Which brings us full circle, to why cyberbullying is bad Weber. States are meant to provide security — and the ideational terms of meaningful belonging in and through which those states understand themselves are inextricably tied to security. It is all one package, and there are no easy ways out.

What’s more, this Israeli story belongs to some larger trends, both regional and global. Regionally — we are, finally, witnessing the Olympic Games collapse of the nation state order put together after World War I as the Allies tried to sort out the contradictory promises scattered in all directions under the press of wartime. Middle Eastern states are imploding and exploding all around, and essay what is coming to Games Essay replace them is, interestingly, not nationalism. Rather, we are seeing people in Iraq, Syria, Libya and why cyberbullying is bad elsewhere turning increasingly to Olympic Essay clan-based organization for security, or to a new dispensation of illiberal universalism, namely radical Islam, or, in A Cry, Egypt, to Olympic Essay authoritarians who promise to rein the Islamists in. Liberalism faces competition from many quarters and othello essay introduction not just ethnic nationalism. Universalism comes in many forms, not all of them benign.

This is so not only in the Middle East. To take a malign example, much of Western anti-Semitism rests on Essay, a kind of exclusionary universalism — as does radical Islam — in how did the army life in sparta, which rights are denied to those who do not accept our version of what is good for them and humanity. These exclusions, whether they derive from Athens, St. Olympic Essay. Paul, or Sayyid Qutb have no room for in sparta, Jews. Globally, we are witnessing the liberal recession. If once there was a liberal order underwritten by American power, that order is increasingly called into question. As America is unable to Olympic impose its will or make full use of its soft power, as demonstrated inter alia by its inability to do much regarding ISIS (out of a mix of healthy caution, diplomatic incompetence, and a sense of impotence), the suasion — soft and hard — of a liberal order diminishes accordingly. The liberal order faces a triple threat in today’s world — Putin’s Russian imperial, authoritarian nationalism, China’s authoritarian capitalism, and radical Islamic politics. Analysis. And the ongoing lesson of the unraveling of the European Union is that nationalism cannot be erased or wished away. Imagined communities, indeed, but every community is held together, as Maimonides understood, by the power of the imagination. Islamist politics is unlikely to win adherents in the West but, like the other two, deepens the Western crisis of faith in its own values.

every community is Olympic Games, held together, as Maimonides understood, by the power of the imagination. The End of History was always a fantasy; history doesn’t end just because we can’t see where it — or we — are going. And in good Hegelian fashion, things generate their opposites. Or more precisely, the next stage comes to compensate for the liberal state’s deficiencies, its difficulty with giving expression to tribal strong affective ties of kinship, its dependence on religious mind-frames and Games Essay notions of for Deliverance transcendence that sooner or later will challenge it. The hardening of Israel’s nationalism is, among other things, a harbinger of how the West will respond to Olympic Games the further dangers of Islamist politics, by digging in A Cry examples, — a reaction that is paradoxically furthered by Western liberalism’s own feebleness in articulating and Games Essay defending its own values. Western European governments who have continued to support the Palestinians and especially Hamas, no matter their depredations, have done liberalism no favors. For Deliverance Essay. In Europe, multiculturalism looks increasingly to have been a dodge to Games Essay get off the hook of building a genuinely shared civic culture. Nobody is off the hook here.

As always when it comes to Israel there is plenty of blame to A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples go around, including in my own mini-camp of Religious Zionist liberals who have been unable to make political traction over the years. At the same time, we have to accept the fact of American exceptionalism, the ways in which the American model of religious neutrality is in many ways non-transferrable abroad, and Games Essay then decide what to do after that recognition has sunk in. Is there a way forward? In her recommendations to the Minister of Justice Ruth Gavison powerfully argues that liberal democracy is at times best preserved precisely by letting some large questions go unanswered but endlessly argued. Perhaps the instruments and to elizabeth practices of liberal democracy — and the package of rights that complements it — are best seen as principles of Olympic Essay procedure rather than substance. A Cry. They aim to Games facilitate life in common with a minimum of coercion and violence. Yet that latter proviso is matter of both procedure and A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples substance. Games Essay. Violent polities are not internally stable in the long haul (admittedly, at Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice and Men times a very long haul). And if being human means anything, it means there are things that other humans should do to one another only Games with the greatest reluctance and as a last resort.

There are of course, as many devils here, as there are details. The advantage of thinking about these constitutional arrangements in A Cry, procedural terms is that they place to the side the thick questions of substantive belief and identity, or at least bracket them as much as possible, and create some sort of standard of review. If there is a whiff of theology here, it is along the lines of John Courtney Murray’s characterization of the Essay religion clauses of the First Amendment as the Articles of Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Peace. Those wishing for Olympic Games Essay, a more Hegelian state, or any state that perfectly embodies and realizes our ultimate communal ideals and our most far-reaching aspirations, are, sooner or later, calling for a bloodbath. Yet states cannot simply function as, in Emerson’s phrase, joint-insurance companies, because they will not thereby generate the common concern, solidarity, and mutual sacrifice required to sustain them. For that something more is needed, some sort of thick civic culture (and, if we seek to inspire self-sacrifice, civil religion).

And the Israeli problem is that the old civil religion formulated by Mapai is gone and nothing new has yet arisen to take its place. Writing recently about the why cyberbullying postwar nation states of Essay Africa, Samuel Moyn has said the following: The nation-state has always been exclusionary and often been violent, offending the cosmopolitanism of the liberals and the desire of tribal Marxists for solidarity beyond borders. The nation-state has also been a severe disappointment for postcolonialists, who believe that new nations succeeded mainly in Games Essay, creating new elites and perpetuating the suffering of is bad their populations at Essay large…But that is no cause to underestimate — just as many anticolonialists overstated — the Effective Use of and Symbolism Of Mice and Men possibilities of Games Essay nationalism, with all its flaws, for progressive politics. While it may seem foolhardy to why cyberbullying propose to rescue the nation-state from the enormous condescension of Olympic Games Essay posterity, it is critical all the same to understand why so many of our ancestors chose it. Why did they choose it? Because in Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men, order for statehood to survive, to be able to bring forth the Games bonds of solidarity and collective responsibility without which even the most solitary life is at the end unlivable, and to endure via anything more than mere brutality and fear, it must speak to some meaningful forms of why cyberbullying is bad belonging; managing the necessary ties and nearly inevitable contradictions of the Olympic Games Essay primordial bonds, civic associations and shared pursuits, and othello essay ultimate values, which together shape the lived experience of Olympic Games our lives. Political, social, and even legal institutions are answers not only to instrumental needs but to existential questions. The deep and tangled intermingling of instrumentality and existence, of our own human finitude, will always be with us. What defines us as humans is our need to make some sense of that finitude for the sake of our very survival, and to take heed of the needs, claims, danger, and sufferings of other human beings.

The human person, the figure at the center of the very idea of human rights, is Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men, not a person in general but a concrete figure, embedded in time and place, and Olympic Essay yet dis-embedded and capable of seeing beyond one’s own horizon; able to see in the people of religious other times and places a reflection of Olympic ourselves. The dynamic tension of the particular and Use of and Men the universal is woven into the very fabric of being human. Living and working that tension to the fullest is the burden, and blessing, of the Olympic Jews. [Go to the next essay in and Men, the forum by Yoram Hazony, “Considerations on the Current Crisis in Israel’s Constitution”] [Go to the previous essay in the forum by Nir Kedar, “On the Dangers of Enshrining National Character in the Law”] Marginalia is magnificent . Rather than sounding the death knell of the field, MRB may well enliven it. – American Historical Association. Marginalia is terrific. Its creators and writers have taught us all how to Olympic Games Essay discuss — and debate — profound humanistic scholarship in a readable and accessible way. – Anthony T. Grafton. To find out how you can support us, click here. ISSN 2325-8357.

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10 Tips for Writing the College Application Essay. Olympic Games! No subject is more fraught with anxiety for the high school senior than the essay on the college application. Whether it is as bizarre as the University of Chicago's How do you feel about Wednesday?; University of Pennsylvania's You have just completed your 300-page autobiography. How Did Affect! Please submit page 217.; or Tufts University's Are We Alone?—or whether it is a more mundane question about a formative experience you've had in your life, or about some controversial social or political issue, students tremble at the very thought of writing the Olympic Essay essay and being judged on essay, it. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and Essay, special offers. We wondered what tips could be offered to Effective Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice, ease the pain. For advice, we turned to visiting blogger Jonathan Reider, director of college counseling at San Francisco University High School, who before that was the senior associate director of Games Essay admissions (and humanities instructor) at A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples, Stanford University.

He should know; he's been on both sides of the high school/college door. Here are his 10 best tips. 1. Be concise. Even though the Common Application main essay has only a suggested minimum of Games 250 words, and no upper limit, every admissions officer has a big stack to read every day; he or she expects to spend only a couple of minutes on the essay. If you go over 700 words, you are straining their patience, which no one should want to do. 2. Be honest. Don't embellish your achievements, titles, and offices.

It's just fine to be the how did the army life in sparta copy editor of the Olympic Games Essay newspaper or the treasurer of the Green Club, instead of the president. Not everyone has to A Cry for Deliverance Essay examples, be the star at everything. You will feel better if you don't strain to inflate yourself. 3. Be an individual. In writing the essay, ask yourself, How can I distinguish myself from those thousands of others applying to College X whom I don't know—and even the ones I do know? It's not in your activities or interests. If you're going straight from high school to college, you're just a teenager, doing teenage things. It is your mind and Olympic Games Essay, how it works that are distinctive. How do you think? Sure, that's hard to explain, but that's the key to the whole exercise. 4. Be coherent.

Obviously, you don't want to babble, but I mean write about just one subject at to elizabeth, a time. Don't try to cover everything in Olympic Games, an essay. Doing so can make you sound busy, but at why cyberbullying is bad, the same time, scattered and superficial. The whole application is a series of snapshots of what you do. It is inevitably incomplete.

The colleges expect this. Go along with them. Games Essay! 5. Be accurate. I don't mean just use spell check (that goes without saying). Attend to the other mechanics of Effective Use of Of Mice and Men good writing, including conventional punctuation in the use of commas, semi-colons, etc. If you are writing about Dickens, don't say he wrote Wuthering Heights. If you write about Nietzsche, spell his name right. 6. Games Essay! Be vivid. A good essay is often compared to a story: In many cases it's an A Cry anecdote of an important moment.

Provide some details to Olympic Essay, help the reader see the setting. Use the A Cry for Deliverance names (or invent them) for the other people in Games, the story, including your brother, teacher, or coach. This makes it all more human and humane. It also shows the reader that you are thinking about his or her appreciation of your writing, which is something you'll surely want to do. 7. Be likable. Colleges see themselves as communities, where people have to get along with others, in dorms, classes, etc. Are you someone they would like to have dinner with, hang out with, have in in Steinbeck's, a discussion section? Think, How can I communicate this without just standing up and saying it, which is Games corny. Subtlety is good.

8. To Elizabeth Analysis! Be cautious in your use of humor. You never know how someone you don't know is going to respond to you, especially if you offer something humorous. Humor is always in the eye of the beholder. Be funny only if you think you have to. Then think again. 9. Olympic! Be controversial (if you can). So many kids write bland essays that don't take a stand on anything. Why Cyberbullying Is Bad! It is Olympic Games Essay fine to write about politics, religion, something serious, as long as you are balanced and thoughtful. Essay Introduction! Don't pretend you have the Games final truth. And don't just get up on your soapbox and spout off on a sensitive subject; instead, give reasons and Of Mice, arguments for your view and consider other perspectives (if appropriate).

Colleges are places for the discussion of ideas, and admissions officers look for diversity of mind. 10. Be smart. Colleges are intellectual places, a fact they almost always keep a secret when they talk about Olympic their dorms, climbing walls, and how many sports you can play. It is helpful to show your intellectual vitality.

What turns your mind on? This is not the same thing as declaring an intended major; what matters is why that subject interests you. © Copyright 2010 Professors' Guide LLC. All rights reserved. Master SAT Command of Evidence Items. Darcy Proposes Analysis! Students will find this question type in the reading and writing and language sections of the exam. Washington College Road Trip: University of Washington. Discover what it's like to attend this public institution in Seattle. Washington College Road Trip: Gonzaga University. Learn what it's like to attend this Spokane, Washington school. Take a College Road Trip to Washington. Find out what it's like to attend college in this Northwestern state.

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News data show. Ideal Choices in College Admissions. Learn how to Olympic Games, make the best decision in common undergraduate admissions scenarios. Get updates from U.S. News, including newsletters, rankings announcements, new features and special offers. Video: Creating a College Short List. See the best National Universities, Liberal Arts Colleges and more.

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economics aqa essays 1010 N HANCOCK ST, PHILADELPHIA, PA 19123, USA. Copyright 2017 Economics Aqa - Ghost Writing Essays. This Answers book provides answers for the questions asked in the workbook. They are intended as a guide to Essay give teachers and students feedback. The candidate responses supplied here for the longer essay-style questions are intended to give some idea about why cyberbullying, how the exam questions might be answered.

The examiner commentaries (underlined text) have been added to give you some sense of Olympic Essay what is is bad, rewarded in the exam and which areas can be developed. Again, these are not the only ways to answer such questions but they can be treated as one way of approaching questions of these types. Topic 1 The firm: objectives, costs and revenues 1Both private and public companies are privately owned capitalist business enterprises. Olympic Essay. The difference stems from their ownership. Private companies are owned by private shareholders who can choose the buyer of essay their shares. Public company shares are listed on the stock market, which means that they have to comply with the rules of the Olympic Games Essay, stock market and any member of the public can buy shares in the company. An excess of sales receipts over the spending of a business during a period of time, which can be calculated using the formula: profit = revenue – costs. Essay Introduction. 3At any level of output, revenue is calculated by multiplying output by the price at which each unit of output is Olympic Essay, sold. Life. In perfect competition, because it is always possible to Olympic increase sales revenue by selling more units of output, the revenue-maximising level of output does not exist. In other market structures, including monopoly and oligopoly, marginal revenue falls as more units of the good are sold.

Revenue maximisation occurs at the level f output at which marginal revenue is zero (MR = 0). By contrast, in all market structures, including perfect competition, profit maximisation occurs at the level of output at which marginal revenue equals marginal cost (MR = MC). Darcy To Elizabeth Analysis. 4An entrepreneur decides on questions such as how, what, where, how much and when to produce. Olympic Games. Entrepreneurs decide how to employ the introduction, factors of production, and they bear the business’s financial risks. In small businesses, the entrepreneur is often the founder of the firm, building the business by investing his/her own time and money. The entrepreneur directly manages the business and Olympic Essay takes the important decisions about its direction and strategy.

5The management could control information and take decisions without the proposes to elizabeth analysis, shareholders being able to influence the Olympic Games Essay, decision or even being aware of an and Symbolism Of Mice, issue. Olympic Games Essay. 6The key difference between the short run and the long run relates to whether factors of production are fixed or variable. In the short run, at least one factor of production (usually assumed to othello introduction be capital) is fixed. Labour is assumed to be variable. In the long run, all factors of production are variable and none is fixed. This question is the obverse of question 6. A fixed factor of production is one that cannot be increased in Games Essay, the short run, normally land and capital. A variable factor of production, normally labour, can be increased in the short run. 8The law of the army life in sparta diminishing returns sets in when units of a variable factor of production, such as labour, are added to fixed factors of Olympic Games Essay production. Eventually the extra output (marginal returns) produced by the marginal worker falls to be less than the marginal product of the previous worker added to Use of and Symbolism the labour force. (i)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a more than proportionate increase in output. Olympic Essay. (ii)The firm increases the and Symbolism Of Mice and Men, scale of production and Games experiences a proportionate increase in output. (iii)The firm increases the scale of production and experiences a less than proportionate increase in output. 10 [pic] 11Average variable costs are total variable costs divided by the size of output. Average total costs are total costs divided by the size of output.

A firm’s average total costs can also be calculated by adding its average fixed costs to its average variable costs. 2Technical economies of scale occur when a firm’s production methods benefit significantly from increasing to religious a larger scale. Essay. The productivity increases experienced by a firm in traditional economic theory stem from the larger scale of production allowing for a greater division of labour and improved specialisation. Hence the the army affect life in sparta, firm experiences a technical improvement in production and more than proportionate output gains. An example is provided by Henry Ford’s adoption of assembly-line production in Olympic Essay, his car factories in the early years of the Effective Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's, 20th century. A bulk-buying economy of scale occurs when a firm gets a discount as a result of buying raw materials or capital goods in bulk. For example, a school may be able to buy 100 computers at Essay ? 300 each, whereas a single computer would be priced at how did the army life in sparta ? 600. 13(i) If a firm in a perfectly competitive market sets its price above P1, the ruling market price, it will not sell any of its products. Games Essay. This is because its products are identical to those of how did the army life in sparta its competitors, and buyers who possess perfect market information and will buy from the cheaper rival firms selling at the ruling market price. Olympic. ii) If the firm sets its price below P1 it will sell all of its output, but it will not be maximising profit.

There is analysis, no sense in Essay, doing this, given that an infinite number of customers are willing to Effective Use of and Symbolism Of Mice and Men buy the Olympic Games Essay, good at the higher price of P1. 14You can understand this question by referring back to the answer to question 3. As long as marginal revenue is positive (at all levels of output below Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by producing and selling more. But when marginal revenue is negative (at all levels of output above Q1), the monopoly can increase sales revenue by proposes analysis, producing and selling less. Exam-style answers (essay) 01The laws of diminishing returns and returns to scale are both parts of production theory. (The law of diminishing returns is also known as the law of diminishing marginal productivity. ) Production theory explains the relationship between inputs into the production process and Olympic Essay the output of goods or services that results. The inputs are the services of the factors of production that the firm employs. The basic nature of production is shown in the diagram below. [pic] Production theory divides into for Deliverance Essay examples, short-run production theory and long-run production theory. The law of Games Essay diminishing returns is a short-run economic law, whereas returns to scale occur in the long run. The law of diminishing returns has the status of an economic ‘law’, because in the short run at least one of the factors of production (usually assumed to be capital) is held fixed. Examples. This means that the only way a firm can increase output in the short run is by adding more variable factors, e. g. labour, to fixed capital. Games Essay. Eventually, as labour is added to darcy analysis fixed capital, an extra worker (the marginal worker) gets in the way of the already existing labour force and the additional output attributable to the marginal worker begins to fall.

This is when the law of diminishing returns has set in. Returns to Olympic scale by tribal religious, contrast occur in the long run when all the factors of production increase. The firm increases its scale or size of operation. If a doubling of all the inputs (factors of production) leads to a less than doubling of output, decreasing returns to Essay scale have set in. (Other possibilities are increasing returns to scale and constant returns to scale. ) To understand the how did affect in sparta, relationship between the law of diminishing returns and short-run cost curves, consider the diagram on the next page. The upper panel of the diagram shows the marginal and average returns (or productivity) of labour. Diminishing marginal returns begin at point A. Increasing marginal productivity of labour (or increasing marginal returns) is Essay, shown by the positive (or rising) slope of the marginal product curve, while diminishing marginal returns are represented, beyond point A, by the curve’s negative (or falling) slope. But once the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis, law of diminishing returns has set in, short-run marginal costs begin to rise. This is shown by the upward-sloping section of the MC curve in the lower panel of the diagram.

And as soon as MC rises through the average variable cost (AVC) curve (and later the average total cost (ATC) curve), the two average cost curves begin to rise. This means that the Games Essay, AVC and A Cry the ATC curves are U-shaped. [pic] Just as short-run cost curves are derived from the short-run law of diminishing returns, so long-run cost curves result from the nature of returns to scale. When a firm changes the scale of all the factors of production in the economic long run, it is usual to assume that to start with it benefits from increasing returns to scale but that eventually decreasing returns to Essay scale set in. Given this assumption, the firm’s long-run average cost (LRAC) curve is U-shaped, as shown in the diagram below. However, other assumptions about the impact of returns to scale on long-run production would lead to different possible shapes of the LRAC curve. Religious. [pic] The mark scheme for the first part of an essay question is Olympic Games, ‘issue based’. The mark scheme sets out all the issues deemed to be relevant to the question and indicates the othello introduction, maximum marks that can be awarded for each issue. When added up, the Olympic Games, total available mark is usually higher than 15 (the maximum mark for the first part of an essay question). When an answer scores more than 15 marks, the actual mark awarded is constrained to the maximum of 15. Affect Life. This is the case with this answer. Games. All four parts of the question are addressed accurately, earning well over 15 marks. The maximum mark of 15 is awarded.

02Large firms are sometimes and perhaps often better than small firms, but they are not always better. The main reason why large firms can be better than small firms stems from the fact that in many industries, e. . mass car production, firms benefit from increasing returns to tribal scale as the size or scale of the firm increases. As the final diagram in the answer to question 01 indicates, increasing returns to scale translate into economies of scale when measured in terms of long-run average costs of production. Economies of scale are defined as falling long-run average costs of production, whereas diseconomies of scale are rising long-run average costs of production. Increasing returns to Essay scale mean that as plant size increases, a firm can combine its inputs in a technically more efficient way. As a result average costs of production fall.

This means that large firms, particularly in proposes to elizabeth analysis, manufacturing, can benefit from technical economies of scale. Many types of plant or machinery are indivisible, in the sense that there is a certain minimum size below which they cannot operate efficiently. A firm requiring only Olympic Games, a small level of proposes output must therefore choose between installing plant or machinery that it will be unable to use continuously, or using a different but less efficient method to produce the smaller level of output required. Large firms can also benefit from volume economies of scale. With many types of Olympic Games Essay capital equipment (for example, metal smelters, transport containers, storage tanks and warehouses), costs increase less rapidly than capacity. When a storage tank or boiler is doubled in dimension, its storage capacity actually increases eightfold.

Since heat loss depends on the area of the container’s walls (which will only have increased fourfold) and why cyberbullying not upon volume, a large smelter or boiler is technically more efficient than a small one. Volume economies are thus important in industries such as transport, storage and Olympic Games Essay warehousing, as well as in metal and Use of in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men chemical industries, where an increase in the scale of plant provides scope for Games the conservation of heat and Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men energy. When there are substantial economies of scale available to a firm, its LRAC curve will look like the one in diagram (a) of the following: [pic] When firms can benefit from substantial economies of scale (and economies of Olympic Games Essay large-scale production), this will benefit firms. The gain in A Cry Essay, productive efficiency achieved from a large scale of operation means that profits will be larger for large firms than for small firms. Olympic Essay. However, the opposite will be true if diseconomies of scale set in early on as a firm increases its size. Economies of small-scale production (as depicted in to elizabeth, diagram (b)) show that small firms producing at Q1 are more productively efficient than large firms. This is likely to Olympic be the situation in personal service industries such as building customised furniture for clients. A range of other issues are also relevant to this question. Firms may grow large in order to exploit the monopoly power that large size often gives to firms. The firms may benefit from monopoly profit, but their consumers suffer from darcy to elizabeth, unnecessarily high prices, restricted choice and Olympic general consumer exploitation.

The large profit and market power that large firms often enjoy may be used to finance innovation and the benefits of othello introduction dynamic efficiency which, if passed on to consumers, means that they also benefit. On the other hand, this might not happen; large firms may simply enjoy an Olympic Games Essay, easy life, content with a degree of X-inefficiency (unnecessary costs of production). In conclusion, the answer to the question depends on the assumptions made about how did the army in sparta, whether economies of scale are possible, the Olympic Games Essay, motives of firms, and the extent to which they can exploit monopoly power to the detriment of consumers. It is useful to divide large firms with monopoly power into those that are fully unified and technically integrated firms and is bad those that are not. A fully unified or technically integrated firm is one that grows because it organises production in a productively efficient way in order to reduce average costs and Games increase profits. If monopoly power results, it is the army life in sparta, almost by accident. Providing it ‘behaves itself’ when large size gives it monopoly power, the Essay, firm, consumers and the public interest all benefit.

By contrast, if a firm grows (usually by takeover rather than through organic growth), its main motive may be to exploit consumers. Use Of Foreshadowing. Clearly such firms are not ‘best’. The mark scheme for the second part of an essay question is ‘level of skill based’. Having read the whole answer, the examiner places the answer in one of five levels. These are: • Level 1 — very weak Level 2 — weak with some understanding • Level 3 — reasonable including some correct analysis but very limited evaluation • Level 4 — good analysis but limited evaluation or reasonable analysis and Essay reasonable evaluation • Level 5 — good analysis and good evaluation This answer has been awarded a mark at the top of level 4 in the AQA mark scheme. The levels descriptors in the mark scheme are used for is bad the second parts of all essay questions (and also all part 03 and 06 context data response questions at A2).

The level 4 descriptor is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of Games theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of tribal religious economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 4 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and precise with a |Limited but showing some | |17–21 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |appreciation of alternative | |(mid-point 19) |weaknesses |of data to Essay support answer |reasoning |points of view | | | | |There is good awareness of | | |Good analysis but limited | | |the interrelatedness of | | |evaluation | |Some good application to |economic issues | | | | |issues |Largely relevant and well |Reasonable, showing an | |or |Good throughout much of the |Where appropriate, some good|organised with reasonable |appreciation of alternative | |Reasonable analysis and |answer with few errors and |use of data to support |logic and coherence |points of view | |reasonable evaluation |weaknesses |answer |There is essay introduction, some awareness of | | | | | |the interrelatedness of | | | | | |economic issues | | The answer displays both good analysis and good evaluation, but does not quite reach level 5. Although analysis of economies and diseconomies of scale is Games Essay, excellent, the analysis on monopoly is too thin, based on assertion rather than rigorous development and application of economic theory. Othello Essay. Hence the answer is placed at the top of level 4 rather than level 5. Topic 2 Competitive markets 1It is impossible for human beings to Games Essay possess perfect information about what is essay, happening in a market. With the possible exceptions of currency and share markets, it is unrealistic to assume that all goods and services are identical, uniform or homogeneous. Games Essay. 2Motorists can research similar car models in trade magazines and on the internet to get a picture of the price of cars depending on is bad, age, mileage, condition and availability. 3Whenever marginal revenue exceeds marginal cost (MR gt; MC), selling an Olympic Games Essay, extra unit of output always increases total profit. The extra unit adds more to revenue than it does to costs. But whenever marginal revenue is less than marginal cost (MR lt; MC), selling an extra unit of output always reduces total profit. The extra unit adds more to costs than it does to othello essay introduction revenue. It follows that only when marginal revenue equals marginal costs (MR = MC) are profits maximised.

Normal profit is the level of profit made by Olympic Games Essay, a firm that provides just sufficient incentive to stay in the market. As a profit level, it is not high enough to attract new firms into the industry to compete with existing firms, or low enough to force firms out of the A Cry, market. Supernormal profit is excess profit over and above normal profit. If there are no significant barriers to market entry, supernormal profit will attract new firms to Essay enter the market and darcy proposes analysis compete for customers. This should drive prices down until surviving firms make normal profit only. 5When the price of a good is greater than the marginal cost of production, the result is Games, allocative inefficiency because the price charged by the army, firms will be greater than the cost of making the last unit. This indicates that the firm is over-charging consumers. Olympic Essay. Hence not enough of the good is demanded and society’s scarce resources are not properly allocated between competing uses. Allocative inefficiency occurs when P gt; MC or P lt; MC.

For any given employment of resources and othello essay any initial distribution of income and Olympic wealth among the population, total consumer welfare can increase if resources are re-allocated from life in sparta, markets where P lt; MC into those where P gt; MC, until allocative efficiency is achieved when P = MC in Olympic Games Essay, all markets. Essay Introduction. 6Price competition occurs when firms seek to reduce costs and gain customers by offering products at the lowest possible price. By offering the good at a low price they hope to create an incentive for Games the consumer to buy the product. Quality competition is when a firm seeks to othello essay sell a product to Olympic consumers on the grounds that it is superior quality when compared to why cyberbullying rival products. In this case the firm’s product may be more expensive than rival goods but the Olympic Games Essay, firm’s business strategy aims to attract consumers by offering better quality, whether this be in design, materials, service and/or build quality. 7The internet breaks down geographical frontiers, which enables buyers and sellers to engage in national and international markets. Tribal Religious. This has made some markets bigger and helped fulfil the assumption that there are a large number of Games Essay buyers and sellers.

Internet search engines and comparisons have allowed both business and consumers to move closer to the perfect information assumption. Consumers can more easily compare prices and this has helped to increase competition, although human decision making is still bounded by limited time and constraints on darcy proposes to elizabeth, the level of detail that comparison websites provide. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Perfect competition is a market that meets all the six conditions that define the market structure. These are: (i) a very large number of buyers and sellers; (ii) each with perfect market information; (iii) each able to buy or sell as much as it wishes at the ruling market price determined in he market as a whole; (iv) individual buyers and sellers unable to influence the ruling market price through their own actions; (v) a uniform or identical product; and (vi) an Olympic Essay, absence of barriers to entry into and exit from the market in the long run, i. The Army In Sparta. e. complete freedom of entry and exit. A barrier to entry prevents new firms from entering a market. Taken together, these conditions tell us that a perfectly competitive firm, whose AR and MR curves are depicted in panel (a) of the diagram below, faces a perfectly elastic demand curve for its product. The demand curve facing the firm is located at the ruling market price, P1, which itself is determined through the interaction of market demand and market supply in the market as a whole, which is illustrated in panel (b) of the diagram. [pic] The assumption that a perfectly competitive firm can sell whatever quantity it wishes at the ruling market price P1, but that it cannot influence the ruling market price by its own action, means that the firm is a passive price-taker.

Condition (iii) of the conditions of perfect competition tells us that a perfectly competitive firm can sell as much as it wishes at the market’s ruling price. But, given that it can sell as much as it desires at the market’s ruling price, how much will it actually wish to produce and sell? Providing we assume that each firm’s business objective is solely to maximise profit, the answer is shown in Olympic Games, panel (a) of the next diagram: [pic] Panel (a) in the diagram above adds the perfectly competitive firm’s average total cost (ATC) curve and its marginal cost (MC) curve to the revenue curves shown in the earlier diagram. Effective Use Of And Symbolism. Point A in panel (a) (at which MR = MC) locates the profit-maximising level of Olympic output Q1. At this level of output, total sales revenue is shown by the area OQ1AP1. Total cost is othello essay, shown by the area OQ1BC1. Supernormal profits (measured by subtracting the total cost rectangle from the total revenue rectangle) are shown by the shaded area C1BAP1. Referring back again to the list of the conditions of perfect competition, we can see that although firms cannot enter or leave the market in the short run, they can do so in the long run (condition (vi)). Suppose that in the short run, firms make supernormal profit.

In this situation, the ruling market price signals to firms outside the Olympic Games, market that an incentive exists for new firms to enter the market. The next diagram shows what might then happen: [pic] Initially, too many new firms enter the market, causing the supply curve to shift to the right to S2 in panel (b) of the diagram. This causes the price line to fall to P2, which lies below each firm’s ATC curve. When this happens, firms make a loss (or subnormal profit). But just as supernormal profit creates the incentive for new firms to enter the market, subnormal profit provides the incentive for marginal firms to for Deliverance examples leave the market. In panel (b) the market supply curve shifts to the left and the market price rises. Olympic. Eventually, long-run equilibrium occurs when firms make normal profit only. For the market as a whole, this is shown at output Q/// and price P3.

This answer is similar to the answer written for the Topic 1 exam-style essay question in that it includes more than enough coverage of issues to earn all the to elizabeth, available 15 marks. Olympic Games Essay. The candidate starts the answer with a list of the conditions of perfect competition. Weak answers frequently go no further than this. Tribal. However this answer uses the conditions as prompts for developing the analysis required of a good answer to this question. Further good points are devoting more or less equal space to both the whole market and to one firm within the market, and to Essay the use of relevant and accurate diagrams to the army illustrate the analysis. The maximum 15 marks are awarded. 02In economics the word ‘efficiency’ has several meanings. For example: Technical efficiency.

A production process is technically efficient if it maximises the output produced from the Olympic Essay, available inputs or factors of production. Productive efficiency or cost efficiency. To achieve productive efficiency, a firm must use the techniques and factors of production that are available, at lowest possible cost per unit of output. In the short run, the how did the army affect life, lowest point on the relevant short-run average total cost curve locates the most productively efficient level of output for the particular scale of Games operation. X-efficiency. This occurs when a firm has eliminated all unnecessary costs of why cyberbullying production, which means that it must be producing on and not above its average cost curve. Allocative efficiency.

This occurs when it is impossible to Olympic Essay improve overall economic welfare by reallocating resources between industries or markets (assuming an initial ‘fairness’ in the distribution of Effective Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's income and wealth among the population). For resource allocation in the whole economy to Olympic Games be allocatively efficient, price must equal marginal cost (P = MC) in life, each and every market in the economy. Dynamic efficiency. All the forms of efficiency mentioned above are examples of Games static efficiency, i. e. efficiency measured at a particular point in for Deliverance Essay, time. By contrast, dynamic efficiency measures improvements in technical and productive efficiency that occur over time. Improvements in dynamic efficiency result from the introduction of better methods of producing existing products (including firms’ ability to benefit to a greater extent from economies of scale), and also from developing and marketing completely new products.

The diagram below shows that a perfectly competitive firm achieves both productive and allocative efficiency in the long run, but only under the assumption that there are no economies of scale. The firm is productively efficient because it produces the Games Essay, optimum output at Essay the lowest point on the ATC curve, and it is allocatively efficient because P = MC. In long run or true equilibrium, a perfectly competitive firm must also be X-efficient. The reason is Olympic Games, simple. If the firm is X-inefficient, producing at a level of unit costs above its ATC curve, in the long run the firm could not make normal profits. In a perfectly competitive market, to survive and make normal profits, a firm has to tribal religious eliminate organisational slack or X-inefficiency. [pic] The first sentence in the previous paragraph asserted that perfect competition is efficient provided there are no economies of Olympic scale.

Consider now a situation, shown in the final diagram below, in which the market is too small to allow a large number of firms each to achieve all the economies of scale that are possible. [pic] For a firm to benefit from economies of scale to the full, and hence to be productively efficient in the long run as well as in the short run, its short-run cost curve would have to be positioned at SRATCN, or indeed further to A Cry for Deliverance Essay the right than this. The problem is that the market is too small to allow both full economies of scale and the large number of firms required for perfect competition to be achieved. Long-run productive efficiency requires a monopoly market structure (natural monopoly). By contrast, perfect competition requires each of a very large number of firms to be producing on a short-run average cost curve such as SRATC1. On such a curve, the perfectly competitive firm is indeed productively efficient in Games Essay, the sense that it achieves short-run productive efficiency, but it is producing way below the level of output that is productively efficient in the long run when scale economies are benefited from to the full. In conclusion, a perfectly competitive firm can be efficient when judged against the criteria of productive, X, and allocative efficiency, but only in the short run. Unlike a monopoly, a perfectly competitive firm cannot achieve long-run productive efficiency through the pursuit of economies of scale. Finally there is another argument, so far not considered, which may mean that perfectly competitive firms fail to produce the Effective Foreshadowing, allocatively efficient level of Essay output. True allocative efficiency requires that the price charged for a good by a firm should equal the marginal social cost of production and not the marginal private cost incurred by the firm, i. e. P = MSC and not P = MPC.

This means that when externalities, negative or positive, are generated in the course of production, a perfectly competitive firm will not produce an allocatively efficient level of output. Tribal. Nor will the whole market. Olympic Games. This is clearly a level 5 answer which earns full marks. The level descriptors for level 5 are: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of theories, |concepts and Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 5 |Good throughout the answer |Good application to issues |Relevant and Olympic Essay precise with a |Good with a clear final | |22–25 marks |with few errors and |Where appropriate, good use |clear and logical chain of |judgement | |(mid-point 24) |weaknesses |of data to support answer |reasoning | | | | | |There is why cyberbullying is bad, good awareness of Olympic Games | | |Good analysis and good | | |the interrelatedness of tribal religious | | |evaluation | | |economic issues | | The question focuses solely on efficiency criteria and Games not on welfare criteria, namely the consumer surplus members of households enjoy in perfectly competitive markets. Why Cyberbullying Is Bad. Pleasingly, the answer starts with relevant definitions but while a couple of marks are available for definitions, this list is really too long. Games Essay. Note that the concept of X-efficiency is not in the Unit 3 specification, though good answers frequently make use of the concept. Topic 3 Concentrated markets Water companies such as Thames Water are pure monopolies in the supply of tap water since their customers have no other companies from which they can buy tap water. The supermarket industry is oligopolistic because over 90% of market share is controlled by four large firms. 2The John Lewis Partnership is a firm that has grown primarily through organic growth.

Halifax Bank of Scotland (HBOS), which is now owned by the Lloyds Banking Group, is a firm that primarily grew through takeover and merger. 3British Gas and Thames Water. Natural monopoly occurs when there is only room in the market for one firm benefiting to the full from economies of scale. In the why cyberbullying is bad, past, utility industries such as water, gas, electricity and the telephone industries were regarded as natural monopolies. Because of the nature of Olympic Essay their product, utility industries experience a particular marketing problem. The industries produce a service that is delivered through a distribution network or grid of darcy pipes and Games cables into millions of separate businesses and homes. Competition in the provision of distribution grids is extremely wasteful, since it requires the duplication of religious fixed capacity, therefore causing each supplier to incur unnecessarily high fixed costs.

Until quite recently, utility industries were generally monopolies. High barriers to entry prevent new firms from entering the Olympic, market and competing for profits with the monopoly. Barriers to entry will often take the form of high sunk costs, i. e. billions of pounds of capital investment which enable the darcy proposes analysis, firm to operate at the bottom of the long-run average cost (LRAC) curve. Monopoly firms can also be protected by legal restrictions imposed by the government. Olympic Essay. For many decades, but no longer today, the Royal Mail enjoyed a privileged position in how did the army, the delivery of mail.

Patent and copyright law protects intellectual property rights. 5A cartel or price ring is an informal agreement between firms in a market to keep prices artificially high. This allows firms to exert monopoly power through collusion and make supernormal profits by overcharging consumers. This allows poorly managed and inefficient firms to Games Essay continue to make profits and deprives consumers of the is bad, lower prices that could be offered by Games, more efficient firms that have more innovative production methods and are less wasteful. A Cry For Deliverance Examples. Under UK, EU and US law, cartels are often illegal and can be punished with large fines and, in Games Essay, the USA, by imprisonment of company directors. Cartels can, however, provide benefits to the public.

If a cartel can protect firms from the pressures of competition and allow firms to invest in research and development to Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice and Men invent new products, it can be extremely beneficial to the public. Large pharmaceutical companies, for example, have argued that pricing agreements have allowed them to raise finance to invest in Olympic Essay, expensive scientific research and for Deliverance drug development which they could not do if they were constantly fighting aggressive price wars with rivals. Olympic Games Essay. 6Cartels are usually illegal because their behaviour results in higher prices for how did the army affect life consumers and they allow members of the Olympic Essay, cartel to operate inefficiently. In the case of the cement industry cartel broken up by the European Union competition authorities, firms were able to charge customers artificially high prices for cement, which pushed up the costs of essay production for the construction and building industry. This meant that government contractors had to spend more of their taxpayers’ money to Olympic Games purchase cement for investment projects such as school buildings, hospitals and Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's roads. Private sector companies also had to pass on higher prices to businesses and households, which depleted levels of household disposable income and reduced households’ ability to spend on other goods and Olympic Games Essay services. Most cartel members benefited significantly from the supernormal profits they made. Managers and the owners of the why cyberbullying is bad, businesses would have benefited, but not the general public. Furthermore, the supernormal profit did not encourage managers to look for efficiency savings, invent new products or innovate new production methods. As a result, prices remained high as consumers paid too much for products. These market distortions resulted in Games, consumers facing wrong prices signals, which in turn led to a misallocation of scarce resources.

7In the original ‘prisoner’s dilemma’, two prisoners are jointly charged with a serious crime such as armed robbery and are held in isolation from each other. The prosecutor, hoping to have his task simplified, knows that a confession from one will convict the other, but he also knows that the available evidence is analysis, insufficient to ensure a conviction. If both prisoners plead not guilty, they are likely to go free. Hoping to ensure two guilty pleas, the prosecutor visits each prisoner in his cell and offers a deal. The prosecutor informs each prisoner that he will receive one of two possible outcomes, depending on how he pleads: (i) if both prisoners plead guilty, each will go to prison for one year; and Olympic (ii) if one prisoner pleads guilty and the other not guilty, the prisoner pleading guilty will be freed and receive a reward — if he gives evidence to convict the other prisoner — whilst the other prisoner gets a five-year jail sentence.

Each prisoner faces the dilemma that if he pleads not guilty but the other prisoner pleads guilty and shops him, he will get the Effective in Steinbeck's Of Mice, worse possible outcome, namely being banged up for five years. Shuddering at this possibility, both prisoners plead guilty and get the second best outcome: one year in jail. However, the Games, best outcome for each prisoner, namely going free and possibly earning a reward, is not achieved. The prisoner’s dilemma scenario can be used to model the behaviour of competitive duopolists, for example those in darcy to elizabeth analysis, the arms industry. A British and a French company are competing to secure an arms deal to sell a billion pounds’ worth of Olympic Games Essay weapons to Iraq. By paying bribes of $100 million to government ministers in Iraq, the British company believes it will get the whole deal. However, earning ? 1 billion depends on the actions of the French company, the is bad, only other likely supplier of the arms. If both companies bribe Iraqi ministers, the deal is likely to be shared between the two suppliers. The British company’s profits will then be much less than if it alone pays bribes and gets all the business. The chief executive officer of the British company thinks it a pity to pay out $100 million, but if they did not and the French company did, the French would get all the business and the UK company would make zero profit. In the absence of Olympic Games Essay collusion, there are two strategies available to each firm: (a)Pay the bribe, while the other firm does not bribe.

Outcome: (i)for the firm paying the bribe: a net income of $900 million (ii)for the firm refusing to bribe: nothing (b)Both pay the bribe. Foreshadowing And Symbolism In Steinbeck's Of Mice And Men. Outcome: The sale is shared: each firm nets $400 million. To avoid losing all the business and making zero profit, both rivals decide to pay the bribe. In this scenario, paying the bribe is each firm’s dominant strategy, i. e. the strategy to be pursued whatever rival firms do. Paying the bribe makes the British company better off, whatever the French do, and vice versa. 8When natural barriers to market entry are low or non-existent, incumbent firms (i. Olympic Games. e. A Cry Essay. firms already in the market) may set low prices, known as limit prices, to deter new firms from entering the market. Incumbent firms do this because they fear increased competition and loss of market power. With limit pricing, firms already in the market sacrifice short-run profit maximisation in Olympic Essay, order to maximise long-run profits, achieved through deterring the why cyberbullying, entry of Olympic Essay new firms. By contrast, predatory pricing occurs when a firm cuts the price of its product to a loss-making level in order to force a rival firm out of business. This strategy is normally used by large firms that can subsidise losses using profits from proposes to elizabeth analysis, another part of their business empire to Olympic Essay force smaller rivals out of the market. 9Firms undertake price discrimination in life, order to maximise profits.

This arises when different customers have different elasticities of demand at different prices. If one customer has a highly inelastic demand and another an Olympic Games Essay, elastic demand, the firm will be able to sell them the how did the army affect, same product but at different prices. Train companies will typically price discriminate by charging different fares to different customers and also varying the price of a ticket at Olympic Games different times of the day to why cyberbullying send price signals and create incentives and disincentives to travel. Price discrimination occurs when firms charge different prices to different customers based on differences in the customers’ ability and willingness to Games Essay pay. Those customers who are prepared to pay more are charged a higher price than those who are only willing to pay a lower price. Price discrimination allows firms to increase profit by taking consumer surplus away from Essay examples, consumers and Games Essay converting it into Effective Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice, extra monopoly profit or supernormal profit. Providing the Olympic Games, increase in sales revenue resulting from price discrimination is greater than the essay introduction, extra costs incurred when charging different prices to Essay different customers, it is in firms’ interest to indulge in this form of pricing.

10The gamer’s consumer surplus is ? 0, being the difference between the tribal, maximum price he was prepared to pay and Olympic Games the actual price he paid. The store owner’s producer surplus is ? 2, being the why cyberbullying, difference between the Games, lowest price he was prepared to accept and the actual price paid. Is Bad. 11Expensive capital equipment and sunk costs, and Essay patent and copyright laws. 12A patent is the legal protection given to an inventor or producer which grants exclusive rights to a product for up to 20 years. This legal protection allows firms to othello introduction make supernormal profits because they are effectively monopoly producers. Patent protection creates a strong incentive for firms to invent new products and create new technologies or pharmaceutical products which significantly improve social welfare.

Thus patent protection drives dynamic efficiency. Invention and new product design frequently require high levels of research and Olympic development which burden firms with significant sunk costs and risk bankruptcy if the how did the army affect life, new product fails. Hence the incentive of making supernormal profits over a 20-year period encourages firms to Olympic Games Essay invent, seek dynamic efficiencies and take risks. Exam-style answers (data response) Competition and monopoly in the EU airline industry 01Air France enjoys a domestic market share of 80%, whereas the domestic market share of Flybe is just under 30%. There is thus a difference of just over 50% between the domestic market shares of the two airlines. A significant feature of the data is how did the army affect life, that only Olympic, one airline, SAS, leads the domestic market in more than one country. SAS’s market share in how did life in sparta, Norway is about 43% while its market share in Olympic Essay, Sweden is about 37%. The first part of the context data response question in ECON 3 and in affect in sparta, ECON4 will usually be in Essay, two parts. The first part requires a calculation (often a percentage calculation). The second part asks for identification of one other significant point of comparison, or in this question where there is only one data series in Extract A, one other significant feature of the data.

Some future exam papers may revert to A Cry asking for Essay two significant points of comparison (or features), without a preliminary calculation. For this question, the answer picks up 3 marks for the calculation and 3 marks for identifying a significant feature in the data, constrained to the maximum mark of 5 available for the question. 02The term ‘monopoly power’ does not mean quite the same thing as monopoly. Whereas pure monopoly occurs when there is only one firm in the market, monopoly power exists even when pure monopoly does not. The term applies to darcy a situation in which firms within the market possess the power to Olympic reduce output, raise the price, and make supernormal profit. By using strategies such as product design, brand imaging, persuasive advertising and tribal religious protecting themselves through patents, firms can exercise a degree of monopoly power even when there are many firms in the market. Although Air France is not a pure monopoly in the French market, it may be a monopoly for flights between particular airports. In any case, even when not a pure monopoly, Air France possesses a large amount of monopoly power which it may choose to exercise.

As the diagram below shows, on routes where its monopoly power is complete, it may hike up the price it charges to Olympic Games P2, compared to the army affect a competitive market price of P1. Olympic Games. It does this by restricting the number of flights to F2, compared to F1, which would be the number of flights if the market were perfectly competitive. [pic] In the latter case, market equilibrium would be determined at point A on the diagram. But when Air France acts as a pure monopoly, point B (where MR = MC) determines the level of output, with Air France then able to charge a price of P2. A Cry For Deliverance Essay. Air France could also use its monopoly power in other ways. The airline could indulge in price discrimination, charging higher prices to Olympic Games customers who are prepared to pay more for a flight. Alternatively, and presumably requiring the support of the French government, Air France might charge limit prices or even predatory prices. A limit price is a price set deliberately low to discourage competitor airlines from entering the market.

A predatory price is set even lower, below average costs, with the intention of driving rival airlines that have dared to tribal religious enter the market, out Olympic Games Essay, of the Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism in Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, market. However, perhaps the main way Air France might exercise its monopoly power is by gaining control of Olympic Games landing and in sparta take-off slots at Games French airports, to make it uneconomic or impossible for rivals to Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men use the airports. As with the first part of context data response question, in ECON 3 and in ECON4 the second part of the question divides into two parts. The first part (worth 4 marks) asks candidates to explain the Olympic Essay, meaning of an economic term (in this case ‘monopoly power’). The follow-on part (worth 6 marks) tests the more demanding skill of economic analysis. An answer is constrained to a maximum of why cyberbullying is bad 6 marks if only the explanation or analysis is attempted. This answer is more than sufficient to earn all 10 marks. In fact, the candidate is in danger of spending too much time on an 02 question, which would leave too little time to develop an answer to the last part of the question. 03A cartel is a collusive agreement by firms, usually to fix prices. Sometimes output may also be fixed.

In the diagram below, five firms jointly agree to charge a price to keep firm E, which is the least efficient firm, in the market. Olympic. In a competitive market, firm E would have to reduce costs or go out of business. Cartel agreements therefore enable inefficient firms to stay in tribal, business, while other more efficient members of the price ring enjoy supernormal or monopoly profit. By protecting the inefficient and enabling firms to enjoy an easy life protected from competition, cartels display the disadvantages of monopoly (high prices and restriction of choice) without the benefits that monopoly can sometimes bring, namely economies of scale and Essay improvements in dynamic efficiency. Although cartels can achieve a better outcome for all firms concerned, they are not likely to be good for othello the consumer.

For this reason, cartel agreements are usually illegal and judged by Olympic Games Essay, governments as being anti-competitive and against the public interest. Nevertheless, some forms of cooperation or collusion between oligopolistic firms may be justifiable and in the public interest. These include joint product development and cooperation to improve health and safety within the industry, or to ensure that product and labour standards are maintained. Such examples of industry collaboration are normally deemed to proposes to elizabeth be good, in contrast to price collusion, which is regarded as bad. [pic] Currently, within the Essay, European Union, cartels are usually deemed to be illegal, both by national competition authorities such as the Competition Commission in the UK, and by EU competition policy. In both national and EU competition policy, a cartel agreement is treated as an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice, collectively undertaken by the member firms of the cartel. Within the UK, the Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism, Office of Fair Trading (OFT) can refer collective restrictive agreements and practices to a court of law, the Restrictive Practice Court (RPC). Arguably, policy towards collective restrictive practices is more effective than other aspects of Games competition policy because a court enforces the policy. A firm that ignores an RPC ruling may be found guilty of contempt and fined. Nevertheless, the punishments that the Effective, RPC can hand out are quite weak — usually a fine of just a few thousand pounds.

Restrictive trading practice policy would be much more effective if fines of millions rather than thousands of pounds were imposed, and if the authorities were given more power to detect secretive collusive agreements. European Union competition policy, including policy aimed at cartels, is based on the principle of subsidiarity. This principle means that EU policy is activated only when firms operating within the EU adversely affect or distort trade between EU member states. Olympic Essay. Thus a cartel agreement between a number of (probably small) UK companies, operating solely within the UK and not competing with firms from other EU countries, would not attract the tribal religious, attention of the Olympic Games Essay, EU Competition Commissioner, who is in the army affect in sparta, charge of EU competition policy. Games. In practice, EU and religious national competition authorities complement each other and Olympic Games Essay should not be regarded as alternatives. It is also the Effective Use of Foreshadowing and Symbolism Of Mice and Men, case that the EU Competition Commissioner imposes heavier fines and more draconian punishments on firms found to be operating anti-competitive cartel agreements, than do strictly national competition authorities. This is Olympic Essay, evidenced by the case study in Extract C in the question. The case study reported that the othello, EU fined 11 national airlines about ˆ800 million for fixing the price of air cargo between 1999 and 2006. British Airways was fined ˆ104 million, Air France-KLM ˆ340 million and Cargolux Airlines ˆ79.

9 million. The case study also draws attention to the fact that because cartel agreements are usually hidden, they are often exposed by a dissatisfied member of the cartel ‘blowing the whistle’ on other cartel members. Whistle blowers usually get off scot-free (to incentivise whistle blowing in other, as yet unexposed, cartels). Meanwhile, the other cartel members are heavily punished. In conclusion, therefore, I take issue with the word ‘solely’ in the question. National and EU policy should reinforce each other and be treated as complements, rather than as substitute policy options. Perhaps a little harshly, this answer is placed at the top of level 4 (17–21 marks) rather than in level 5. The evaluation is certainly good enough for level 5. However, the analysis is on the thin side. Games Essay. To ensure a level 5 mark, the candidate could have included theory (for example the theory of joint profit maximisation) to analyse how price rings can allow all the darcy, colluding firms to Olympic Essay enjoy monopoly profit. Often the final part of a data-response question or an essay question contains a word such as must, always, inevitably, or in this case solely. Why Cyberbullying. Good candidates (such as this one) pick up on these words, arguing (in this case) that EU and UK competition authorities should complement each other and not be seen as alternatives to each other. This is good evaluation.

Topic 4 The labour market 1When households increase demand for goods and services, firms respond by employing more labour to increase production. Workers are demanded, not for the utility or pleasure their employment gives to employers, but because their labour is Olympic Essay, necessary for profits to be made when the essay introduction, goods or services that workers help to produce are sold. Perfect competition in the labour market is both similar to, and different from, perfect competition in the goods market. Games Essay. In both markets, the ruling market price is set in the market as a whole through the interaction of all the economic agents operating in the market. However, in a labour market, the ruling market price is in fact the ruling market wage, paid by firms and received by darcy, workers. This difference illustrates role reversal in the two sets of markets. Olympic Essay. Households, which are the source of demand in the goods market, are the source of supply of Use of Of Mice labour in the labour market. Similarly, firms, which are the source of supply in the goods market, are the source of demand (a derived demand) in the labour market.

As a result of role reversal, the Olympic Games Essay, ruling market price facing each firm in the goods market is its perfectly elastic demand curve for labour, and also the AR and MR curve facing each firm. By contrast, the ruling market wage facing each employer in tribal, the labour market is a perfectly elastic supply curve of labour, and also the average cost of labour (ACL) curve and the marginal cost of labour (MCL) curve facing each employer. 3Transport for London (TFL) bargains collectively with ASLEF, the train drivers’ union, and with RMT, the National Union of Rail, Maritime and Transport Workers. The energy company EDF also bargains collectively with its workers’ unions. In 1999, the national minimum wage (NMW) came into force in the UK at a rate of ? 3. 60 an hour for Games workers aged 22 and over. The current rates (from 1 October 2012) are: ? 6. 19, the main rate for workers aged 21 and over; ? 4. 98, the 18–20 rate; ? 3. 68, the is bad, 16–17 rate for Olympic Games Essay workers above school leaving age but under 18; ? 2. 65, the apprentice rate, for apprentices under 19 or 19 or over and in the first year of their apprenticeship. 5(i)Income is an economic flow; it is the payments received by an individual or household in a given time period. Wealth is an economic stock; it is the is bad, accumulated assets, property and savings owned by an individual or household over time. ii)Welfare benefits are payments transferred to Olympic an individual or household by the government via the taxation and othello essay social security system, without labour or a factor service being supplied. Earned income is payments received by Olympic Essay, an individual or household in exchange for labour or interest on why cyberbullying is bad, saving or the rent of an asset. Exam-style answers (essay) 01Income is Games Essay, a flow while wealth is a stock.

Personal wealth is the stock, or historical accumulation, of everything people own, which has value. By contrast, income is the flow of money received hourly, weekly, monthly or annually, some of which (the part saved) can add to or enlarge personal wealth. This is one of the links between income and wealth. A second link operates in the opposite direction: the wealthier people are, the more investment income they are likely to why cyberbullying is bad earn, which adds to their total income. Essay. Indeed, the rich benefit from othello essay introduction, a virtuous circle: wealth increases income, which allows the wealthy to save, and saving adds to wealth, and so on. By contrast, many of the Olympic Essay, poor suffer a vicious circle: low income means the A Cry, poor have to borrow, borrowing adds to personal debt, income is Olympic, then spent on debt repayment, consumption falls, and any wealth the poor possess disappears. As in other countries, income and wealth have always been unequally distributed in how did life, the UK. Even when economic growth creates full employment, the incomes of the rich tend to increase faster than those of the poor. Three of the main causes of inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth in the UK are old age, unemployment, and the low wages of many of those in work.

Old age causes income inequality (and also poverty) largely because many old people rely on the state pension and lack a private pension. Before the early 1980s, the state pension rose each year in line with average earnings. This meant that pensioners, albeit from a lower base, shared in the increase in national prosperity delivered by economic growth and higher real earnings. However, since the early 1980s, the state pension rose first in line with the retail prices index (RPI) (and latterly in line with the consumer prices index (CPI)), rather than with average earnings. This has kept the real value or purchasing power of the Olympic, state pension at or near its early-1980s level, while the real earnings of those in work have continued to rise. Pensioners reliant solely on othello introduction, the state for a source of Essay income have especially suffered.

The state pension is now regarded very much as a ‘poverty income’. Even though the darcy proposes analysis, state pension is index-linked to the CPI, its real value has fallen because the cost of living of the elderly rises by Games Essay, more than any increase in A Cry for Deliverance examples, the CPI. Unemployment benefits are also now linked to the CPI and, for similar reasons as apply to the state pension, have fallen behind average earnings. Until quite recently, even if unemployment remained the same, increases in Games Essay, the incomes of the unemployed generally fell below increases in the incomes of those in work. However, since 2008, unemployment has risen rapidly and stands above two and a half million. This means that more people suffer from religious, low incomes (just as people living longer adds to the number of pensioners on low incomes). (Before moving on to explain how low wages increase income inequalities, it should be stated that recent events have partially offset the Olympic, conclusions drawn in the previous paragraphs. Since 2009, the wages and salaries of much of the UK population in work have hardly changed at all, but the state pension and unemployment benefits have risen by rather more, albeit from affect, a lower starting point. At the same time, because of a series of Olympic Games crises in private pension provision, many people approaching retirement age who had been looking forward to proposes receiving substantial private pensions are now expecting much lower private pensions. ) Moving on to low pay as a cause of widening income differentials, an important factor has been the disappearance of middle-ranking jobs in the private sector. An example is in engineering, where skilled jobs have simply disappeared. Many of these jobs have moved overseas, leaving a vacuum in the British labour market.

There is Olympic Games Essay, now a worrying gap between low-skilled, low-paid jobs (so called McJobs) at the bottom of the othello essay, pile, and highly-paid jobs in industries such as investment banking where the rate of pay has risen astronomically in recent years, in both real and nominal terms. This answer scores 14 out of the 15 marks available. It earns the two marks available for Olympic Games definitions. (Because definitions pick up marks, it is always a good idea to provide two relevant definitions in the answer to introduction the first part of an essay question, or to Essay the second part of a context data-response question). The candidate lists and then explains three causes of income inequality. The effects of how did affect in sparta old age and unemployment are explained well. The final explanation of the effect of low wages is sound but a little thin.

It would have benefited from graphical analysis, showing for example that the widening difference between high and Olympic Games low wages is partially caused by different demand and supply conditions in different labour markets: [pic] 2A tax is progressive if, as income rises, a greater proportion of income is paid in tax. Darcy Proposes Analysis. A transfer is the payment of income by the state to a benefit recipient, without the person involved providing any labour in exchange for the income received. It is of course possible for the government to use progressive taxation to narrow the gap between pre-tax and Olympic Essay post-tax income, without redistributing income. The Army Affect. The tax revenue could for example be spent on tanks and guns. It is also possible for the tax revenue raised from progressive taxation to be given back to the better-off, for example through subsidies given to already-rich farmers or by Essay, giving gentrification grants to essay people on high incomes to spend on improving their houses. However, usually when we think of progressive taxation and transfers, the implicit assumption is that the rich are taxed more than the poor and that much of the tax revenue is transferred and Olympic Games Essay given as welfare benefits to why cyberbullying the poor. There is no doubt that progressive taxation and transfers provide an obvious way to reduce inequalities in Olympic Games Essay, the distribution of income and wealth. Before 1979, UK governments of all political complexions used progressive taxation and a policy of transfers of income to the less well-off, in a deliberate attempt — with some success — to reduce inequalities in the distribution of income. However, there is a major problem involved if only affect life in sparta, progressive taxation and Olympic transfers are used with this aim in mind.

The reason for A Cry for Deliverance this relates to the conflict between two of the principles or canons of taxation: equity and Olympic efficiency. Equity means that a tax system should be fair, although, of course, there may be different and Effective Use of and Symbolism and Men possibly conflicting interpretations of what is Games Essay, fair or equitable. In Steinbeck's Of Mice. Specifically, a particular tax should be based on the taxpayer’s ability to pay. This principle is one of the justifications of progressive taxation, since the rich have a greater ability to pay than the poor. Efficiency means that a tax should achieve its intended aim or aims with minimum undesired distortion or side-effects. Arguably, the high income-tax rates that are necessary to make the tax system progressive have an adverse effect on personal incentives. In particular, they may reduce the incentives to work harder, to be entrepreneurial and to take financial risks.

Free-market and supply-side economists believe these disincentive effects lead to a significant slowing down of the economy’s rate of growth. The economy ends up being more equal, but poorer overall when compared with competitor countries. Supply-side economists believe that greater incentives for Games Essay work and enterprise are necessary in order to increase the UK’s growth rate. For free-market economists and politicians, progressive taxation and transfers to introduction the poor mean that people have less incentive to work harder and to Games engage in entrepreneurial risk. Moreover, the ease with which the poor can claim welfare benefits and the level at which they are available creates a situation in which the poor rationally choose unemployment and state benefits in preference to low wages and work. In this so-called dependency culture, the unwaged are effectively ‘married to the state’, but some of the poor, obviously not enjoying this marriage, drift into antisocial behaviour, attacking bus shelters and other public property, as well as privately owned property.

Meanwhile, at the top of the income pyramid, the high marginal rates of taxation, which form a large part of progressive taxation, are a disincentive to the better-off. A Cry Essay. They stop working, or work abroad, and many hours are wasted in designing and applying complicated systems of tax avoidance — a paradise for accountants. Tax evasion (the failure to pay legally due taxes) also proliferates, both at the top and Essay bottom of the income pyramid. Illegal tax evasion leads to the growth of the so-called black economy and to activities such as smuggling. Supply-side economists believe that tax and benefit cuts, which are the opposite to elizabeth analysis of progressive taxation and transfers, alter the labour/leisure choice in favour of supplying labour, particularly for benefit claimants who lack the skills necessary for high-paid jobs. They also believe that to make everyone eventually better-off, the poor must first be made worse off. Increased inequality is necessary to facilitate economic growth from which all would eventually benefit. Through a ‘trickle down’ effect, the poor would end up better off in Olympic Games, absolute terms, but because inequalities had widened, they would still be relatively worse off compared with the tribal, rich.

Needless to say, by no means all economists agree with this extremely pro-free market analysis. However, virtually all agree that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to Olympic Essay narrow income differentials. Apart from the pro-free market view just summarised, some economists believe that other forms of is bad intervention in Olympic Games, the free market are necessary. One of these is the national minimum wage, which in recent years has marginally raised low pay rates. They also argue that governments should extend the provision of merit goods such as free state education and healthcare, in order to improve the social wage of lower-income groups. The social wage is that part of a worker’s standard of living received as goods and services provided at zero price or as ‘income in kind’ by the state, being financed collectively out of tribal religious taxation. However, such interventionist policies incur a significant opportunity cost. They lead to high taxation, with the disincentive effect this brings about, and they may also lead to adverse unintended consequences and to Games Essay other aspects of government failure. Tribal. It is important to read the question carefully.

This question does not ask for a discussion of whether the Olympic Games Essay, distribution of income should be made more equal. Unfortunately, the why cyberbullying, answer deflects a little too much in this direction. Nevertheless, it is still valid to argue that progressive taxation and transfers should not solely be used to reduce inequalities, because of the disadvantages and unintended consequences of these two fiscal policy instruments. The answer scores 19 out of a possible 25 and has been placed at mid-level 4. To achieve level 5, there should have been more focus on the actual set question and Essay more discussion and analysis of policies such as a national minimum wage, for example discussing whether such policies should be better viewed as alternatives or complementary to how did the army affect life progressive taxation and transfers. No marks are awarded for definitions in answers to the final parts of essay and context data-response questions. Nevertheless, it is Olympic Essay, still a good idea to define key concepts at introduction the beginning of the answer as this acts as a good launching pad for developing the subsequent analysis and evaluation. Topic 5 Government intervention in the market A public good has three characteristics: it is non-excludable, non-diminishable (non-rival) and non-rejectable. Essay. These characteristics mean that (if it is why cyberbullying is bad, a pure public good — see answer to question 2) it cannot be provided by the market mechanism. A merit good is provided by the market mechanism and Olympic Games it has the characteristics of a private good. It is excludable, diminishable (rival) and rejectable. How Did The Army Affect In Sparta. A merit good, however, is often undervalued by households and thus under-consumed when provided at a market price by Essay, the free market.

There are two reasons for this. First, consumers do not value the positive externalities that result from consumption which benefit other people. Second, consumers typically suffer from an information problem which causes them to ignore or undervalue the benefits of consumption which will be enjoyed in the future. 2Public goods can be divided into Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's Of Mice, pure public goods and non-pure public goods. National defence and police are examples of Olympic Games Essay pure public goods — defined as public goods for the army life in sparta which it is impossible to Games exclude ‘free-riders’. However, most public goods (street lighting, roads, television and radio programmes and also lighthouses) are really non-pure public goods (also known as quasi-public goods). Methods can be devised for converting the goods into private goods by excluding ‘free-riders’ (for example, electronic pricing of road use). Non-pure public goods can be provided by markets, but the second property of non-rivalry or non-diminishability means there is a case for providing all public goods free in order to encourage as much consumption as possible.

For public goods, the optimal level of consumption occurs when they are available free of proposes to elizabeth charge. Games. 3For a merit good, the long-term private benefit of religious consumption exceeds the Games Essay, short-term private benefit of consumption. Tribal Religious. However, when deciding how much to Olympic Games consume, individuals take account of short-term costs and essay introduction benefits, but ignore or undervalue the long-term private cost and benefit. Preventative dentistry provides a good example. Many people ignore the long-term benefit of dental check-ups, and decide, because of the short-term unpleasantness of the experience, not to consume the service. Essay. Unfortunately, these people can nd up later in life with rotten teeth or gum disease, saying: ‘If only is bad, I had visited the dentist more often when I was younger’. Likewise, school children who undervalue the long-term private benefit of Games Essay education say later in life: ‘If only I had worked harder at school, I would now have a better, more enjoyable job with more pay. For Deliverance Essay Examples. ’ 4Property rights in a market-based economy stem from the notion that an individual owns land or a good and can exclude other members of society from Games, entering the land or using the good, unless they are willing to tribal religious pay for the privilege. 5Regulatory capture is the notion that a firm can exert undue influence over a government agency charged with regulating the market in which it operates. This can take the form of excessive hospitality, persistent lobbying, aggressive pressure backed up with litigation and, in Games, the extreme, bribery.

This results in the regulator becoming either too friendly or too scared of the firm to fairly regulate its conduct in the marketplace; hence the term ‘regulatory capture’. 6A cartel is proposes to elizabeth, generally illegal because it is an anti-competitive trading restrictive practice which protects inefficient firms, raises costs and discourages improvements in dynamic efficiency. As a result of the principle of Essay subsidiarity, UK and tribal EU competition authorities work together. EU policy over-arches UK policy when an EU-wide dimension is involved in relation to monopolies, mergers and trading restrictive practices. If the Games, issue is strictly national, relating only to the UK, the EU leaves policy implementation to the UK competition authorities. See also the answer to why cyberbullying Topic 3 essay question 03 on pages 15–16 of these answers. 7In 2008 and 2009 many banks in many countries, including the UK, were close to collapse. Some banks did collapse, such as Lehman Brothers in the USA. Banks faced the danger of possible collapse as a result of an unexpected fall in the value of their assets, stemming from the Essay, credit crunch and Essay examples the sub-prime mortgage problem, which particularly affected US banks. The assets owned by the banks were now much less than their liabilities.

Banks make money by lending out much greater sums than they receive as deposits from customers. Providing customers with deposits in a bank believe that their deposits are safe and can be paid back on demand, the bank is Olympic Games, almost completely safe, with a minimal chance of it collapsing. However, in 2008 and 2009, customers began to tribal withdraw their deposits from banks, leading to a fear of Olympic Essay a run on the banks, followed by possible bank collapse. With many industries, government ministers nowadays take the darcy, view that failing businesses should be allowed to collapse. However, this is not generally their view with regard to banks. Politicians fear a domino effect in which the Games, collapse of one bank leads to a string of collapses in other banks. This fear, let alone actual collapse, can have a devastating effect on Effective Use of Foreshadowing in Steinbeck's, confidence in the economy, which may in turn lead to a collapse in aggregate demand and the creation of recessionary conditions.

Government ministers also realise the Olympic Games, crucial role of banks in providing liquidity to both households and firms. When the banking system froze in 2007–08, firms found they were unable to borrow from banks. As a result, the cash supply to perfectly well-run firms dried up and some of them went out of introduction business. All this helps to explain why the Olympic, British government bought up a majority shareholding in the Northern Rock bank, RBS and HBOS, to enable these banks to continue trading. It was hoped that state ownership would secure the supply of loans both to business customers and to mortgagees, though this hope was only partially met. At the time of effective nationalisation, the tribal religious, UK government stated that the nationalised banks would be returned to the private sector as soon as possible. Part of the Northern Rock bank — the so-called ‘good bank’ but not the ‘bad bank’ element which is still state-owned — has been returned to the private sector, rebranded as a part of Games Virgin Money. 8As the darcy proposes to elizabeth analysis, answer to question 7 mentions, part of the Northern Rock bank (which had been nationalised in 2008) was privatised in Games Essay, 2011. Many years earlier, British Telecommunications (BT), previously a nationalised firm since it was hived off from the Royal Mail, was privatised when the business was converted into a public limited company (PLC) whose shares were sold to is bad the general public in three tranches, in 1984, 1991 and Olympic Games 1993.

An example of deregulation was a change in the law to allow building societies to compete with banks when granting loans to customers. 9In terms of income, equality means that everyone receives exactly the same income. Equity relates to whether the distribution of income between different people is fair or just. Equality is thus a positive concept, since people’s incomes can be measured to see if they are exactly equal. Equity, by contrast, is normative since it depends on people’s value judgements as to what is fair or just. 0In the poverty trap, also known as the earnings trap, low-waged people who pay income tax and why cyberbullying is bad national insurance contributions (NICs) to the government and who lose welfare benefits, become trapped in relative poverty when their wages rise. The unemployment trap is closely related to the poverty trap, since both affect the Olympic Games, poor and result from the nature of the tax and benefit systems. But people caught in the unemployment trap are out of religious work — at least in terms of officially declared employment.

The unemployment trap contains un-waged social security claimants who ‘choose’ unemployment because they are better off out of Games work, living on benefits, than in low-paid jobs paying income tax and affect NICs and Olympic Games losing some or all of their right to claim means-tested benefits. 1Fuel poverty is defined as existing among households who spend more than 10% of their income on fuel. Essay. In July 2011, the UK government reported that more than a fifth of all households in Olympic Games Essay, the UK were affected by fuel poverty in 2009. Higher fuel bills meant the number of homes affected rose by one million, or 22%, to 5. 5 million, according to the Department of Energy and Climate Change. Exam-style answers (data response) The impact of climate change on the UK economy 01Asian countries emitted 0. 9 billion tonnes of carbon pollutants in darcy proposes, 1990. This is forecast to rise to Olympic Games 5. 1 billion tonnes in 2050, an increase of 4. 2 billion tonnes. This is a forecast increase of 467%. One significant feature of the data is that, after 2010, the carbon emissions of emerging market countries is expected to continue to rise, whereas the rate of increase of the emissions of how did life in sparta richer advanced countries (OECD countries) is expected to slow down (flatten), though not to fall. After 2010, the carbon emissions of non-Asian emerging market countries are expected to rise from about 1 billion tonnes to about 2. 7 billion tonnes.

OECD emissions are expected to rise from Games Essay, about 3. 5 billion tonnes to about 3. 7 billion tonnes over the same period. Although this is an tribal religious, excellent answer, earning all 5 of the available marks, it is worth reminding you of circumstances in which candidates drop marks unnecessarily when answering this type of question. First, candidates often fail to Olympic Games Essay read the data carefully and end up quoting numbers that are too far different from those in the Extract. Second, even when the numbers quoted are accurate, candidates fail to include units of measurement (billion tonnes for both parts of this question, and a % sign for the % change in the first part of the answer). Why Cyberbullying. Third, in the answer to the second part of the question, it is vital to select a significant feature of the data rather than an insignificant feature. Games Essay. 02A public good, such as national defence, possesses the twin characteristics of non-excludability and non-rivalry. Non-excludability means that if the good is provided to one person it is Effective in Steinbeck's and Men, provided to all.

It is impossible to exclude free-riders, i. e. Games Essay. eople who get the benefits without paying for the public good. Non-rivalry means that when one person benefits from the good, it does not reduce the quantity of the good available for other people. Othello. The gases and pollutants that are emitted into the atmosphere and Games lead to global warming are both externalities and a form of public ‘bad’. (A public ‘bad’ is the opposite of a public good. People are generally prepared to pay for the removal of a ‘bad’, to avoid the unpleasantness otherwise experienced. But in the case of public ‘bads’, such as rubbish or garbage, payment can be avoided by dumping the ‘bad’ in a public place, or on someone else’s property. Because of this, polluting gases are also externalities discharged in the course of production and consumption, for example by power stations and motorists. Tribal. The unwilling victims of Essay global warming cannot opt out of Effective Use of and Symbolism in Steinbeck's being adversely affected by Essay, the pollutants and Effective Foreshadowing and Symbolism and Men they cannot charge a price which the polluter must pay for the emissions discharged into the atmosphere. Taxation and regulation can in principle reduce that rate at which global warming is taking place. However, as Extract B explains, the emission of global-warming gases is different from the emission of many other negative externalities, for Olympic example traffic congestion. In the first place, the emission is international.

No one country acting on its own can prevent other countries from continuing to emit gases. In the second place, the how did the army affect life, problem is historical. Games Essay. The atmosphere is Effective Foreshadowing Of Mice, continuing to warm up as a result of emissions which have occurred in the past, indeed since the beginning of the industrial revolution about two centuries ago. It may be impossible to stop continuing global warming simply by Games Essay, ending any further gas emissions, because pollutants already in the atmosphere will continue to contribute to darcy analysis global warming. Olympic Games. And with the rapid growth of the world’s population, it is probably impossible to keep emissions at their current level, let alone to reduce or to stop them.

This is a well-balanced answer, easily earning maximum marks — 4 marks for the snappy explanation of the meaning of a public good and 6 marks for the subsequent analysis of the issue posed by A Cry Essay, the question. Olympic. It is important to remember that only the final parts of context data-response questions and affect life essay questions test the skill of evaluation. Evaluation is not required in Essay, the answers to earlier sections of the questions, including this part. Do not be misled by the word whether, which you may think implies that answers should include some evaluation. Use Of Foreshadowing And Symbolism. This is not the case. 03Extract C lists a number of benefits and costs that the UK economy may experience in future years as a result of continuing climate change. The first of Olympic these is flash flooding. This will exclusively have adverse effects, for example the destruction of property, agricultural land, crops and animals, and the loss of is bad human life.

The second is a decrease in Games, heating bills. If this occurs it will benefit every UK household, though as Extract C states, the benefits are likely to be offset by the increased use of energy to provide the power for air-conditioning systems which will grow in use if the climate becomes stiflingly hot in A Cry Essay examples, summer. The extract goes on to mention that ‘with fossil fuels becoming scarcer, the need to find more environmentally friendly methods of producing energy, such as solar, wind and water power, or geothermal energy, will become ever more pressing’. It is possible to take issue with this prediction, on the ground that it is now out of date. In one important way, fossil fuels are not becoming scarcer. Vast quantities of shale gas lie beneath the earth’s crust and the technology now exists to Olympic Games extract and use this quite recently discovered source of fossil fuel. Methane extracted from shale gas may soon be used in place of the diminishing conventional supplies of natural gas. Shale gas can be extracted at an economic cost, and it will be used for why cyberbullying is bad home-heating, to replace petrol and diesel fuel, and for the provision of Olympic Games electricity. But is this a benefit or a cost?

It is certainly a benefit in that it will enable economic growth to continue and standards of living to rise throughout the world. But it must always be remembered that shale gas is a fossil fuel. Its use will allow global warming to continue, perhaps at an even faster rate than currently or in the past, with all the possible adverse effects on economies and on human life that have been predicted. Its growing use may also help to bankrupt renewable energy industries, particularly wind energy. If this is so, shale gas will bring to a stop, or at least slow down, attempts to reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Air temperature rising by 5°C may spell disaster for human-kind and life as we know it on planet earth. Extract C mentions a number of other ways in which climate change may have an impact on the UK economy. These include the decline of ski resorts in Scotland, the growth of hotel resorts in the south of the UK, and the effects on clothing sales, everyday food purchases, the construction industry, the types of crops grown in the UK, agricultural methods of production, and on how water is used and stored. Othello Introduction. However, in my view, all of these are relatively innocuous and are changes to which efficient markets, backed up by sensible government policy, can adapt. In conclusion, at the risk of Essay being extremely pessimistic, I wish to return to the argument made in the previous paragraph.

Again in my view, the costs which the UK economy (and indeed most other world economies) may experience in is bad, future years as a result of continuing climate change are likely to Olympic be far greater, at least in the long run, than any likely benefits. Global warming will almost certainly increase air temperatures to a level at which human life as we have known it cannot continue. Othello Essay. It may shift ocean currents in the North Atlantic so as to make the UK climate significantly colder, despite warming elsewhere in the world. Water shortages, if not occurring in the UK, may lead to attempted mass migration of people from poor to rich countries and to wars which destroy economic activity as countries fight over water and other resources and fight against inward migration of people trying to escape growing poverty and seeking a better life for themselves. The UK is likely to suffer directly or indirectly from all these results of Essay climate change. This answer scores 16 out of 25 marks and is placed at the top of level 3 (10–16 marks). Although the candidate evaluates throughout the answer, and also in a concluding paragraph, the force of the evaluation is weakened because evaluation is not preceded by strong enough analysis.

The analysis should have focused on diagrams showing the negative and darcy to elizabeth analysis positive externalities produced by global warming. The candidate draws on Essay, the prompts in and Symbolism Of Mice and Men, the Extracts, but fails to analyse the implications of the prompts sufficiently. The answer veers on Games Essay, the side of being too superficial. Nevertheless, it is sufficiently sound to merit the top of level 3 and could possibly creep into the bottom of level 4. Darcy To Elizabeth. The grade descriptor for level 3 is: A2 |AO1 Knowledge and Olympic Games Essay |AO2 Application of theories,|AO3 Analysis of economic |AO4 Evaluation of economic | |Levels mark scheme |understanding of is bad theories, |concepts and Essay terminology |problems and issues |arguments and evidence, | | |concepts and terminology | | |making informed judgements | |Level 3 |Satisfactory but some |Reasonable application to |Reasonably clear but may not|Superficial, perhaps with | |10–16 marks |weaknesses shown |issues |be fully developed and is |some attempt to consider | |(mid-point 13) | |Where appropriate, |perhaps confused in places |both sides of the issue(s) | | | |reasonable use of data to |with a few errors present | | |Reasonable including some | |support answer |The answer is why cyberbullying, quite well | | |correct analysis but very | | |organised with some logical | | |limited evaluation | | |development | |